عملیات اجرایی حقوق دریایی و جمع‌آوری اطلاعات در عصر امنیت دریایی

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار حقوق خصوصی و عضو گروه کسب‌و‌کار دانشکده کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد حقوق حمل‌و‌نقل تجاری، دانشگاه علوم قضایی و خدمات اداری، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق خصوصی، دانشگاه علوم قضایی و خدمات اداری، تهران، ایران.

4 استاد حقوق در دانشگاه حقوق دانشگاه موناش، استرالیا.

چکیده

چکیده مترجمین:
اجرای قوانین مختلف در حوزه حقوق دریایی بین‌المللی درخصوص ایجاد امنیت دریایی، منوط به همکاری ارگان‌های نظامی و اطلاعاتی کشورها در اجرای قوانین و مقررات در زمینه‌های اطلاعاتی و عملیاتی می‌باشد. این امر منوط به شناخت صلاحیت نیروهای نظامی و اطلاعاتی کشورها در محدوده آب‌های سرزمینی و فراسرزمینی یک کشور، نحوه جمع‌آوری اطلاعات، چگونگی اشتراک‌گذاری و پردازش اطلاعات بین نهادهای حقوقی و نظامی جهت هماهنگی در انجام دستورات ارائه‌شده، بر اساس مفاد مقررات مصوب آن کشور می‌باشد. اجرای چنین عملیاتی منوط به اجرای محدودیت‌های قانونی در نحوه تفسیر و اعتبارسنجی اطلاعات در ایجاد ظن یا اطمینان در وقوع جرایم ملّی یا فراملّی توسط افراد در محدوده آب‌های سرزمینی یک کشور است. در حوزه‌های فراسرزمینی نیز دستیابی به چنین اهدافی منوط به همکاری کشورهای مشترک‌المنافع می‌باشد. درحال‌حاضر دو سیستم «ال ‌آر ای تی»[1] در زمینه جمع‌آوری اطلاعات در آب‌های داخلی و عملیات «وی بی اس اس»[2] در زمینه جمع‌آوری اطلاعات در آب‌های سرزمینی و فراسرزمینی کشورها وجود دارد. اجرای چنین فرایندهایی تحت قواعد حقوق بین‌الملل با چالش‌هایی همچون مکانیسم‌های تأسیسی همکاری بین‌المللی، وجود مقررات درزمینه به اشتراک‌گذاری اطلاعات نظامی، وجود یا فقدان صلاحیت نیروهای نظامی کشورها در جمع‌آوری اطلاعات خصوصاً کشتی‌های جنگی در آب‌های آزاد، نوع صلاحیت، محدوده صلاحیت و اعتبارسنجی اطلاعات، نحوه جمع‌آوری اطلاعات، رضایت یا عدم‌ِرضایت دولت متبوع فرد مظنون و ... می‌باشد که ضرورت تصویب کنوانسیون‌های بین‌المللی را دراین‌خصوص تقویت می‌نماید.



[1]. LIRT


[2]. Visit, Board, Search and Seizure (Vbss) Operations

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Maritime Law Enforcement Operations and Intelligence in an Age of Maritime Security

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossein sadeghi 1
  • zahra Ali Hemati 2
  • Mahdi Naser 3
  • Douglas Guilfoyle 4
1 Assistant Professor of Private Law, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, Business ‎Department‎, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran‎.
2 M.A in Commercial Transportation Law, University of Judicial Sciences and Administrative Services, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Student in Private Law, University of Judicial Sciences, and Administrative Services, Tehran, Iran.
4 Professor of Law at the Faculty of Law, Monash University, Australia
چکیده [English]

Implementing various Codes in the field of international maritime law regarding the establishment of maritime security is subject to the cooperation of the military and intelligence agencies of the countries in the implementation of laws and regulations in the field of intelligence and operational. This is due to the recognition of the competence of the country's military and intelligence in the territorial waters of the country, the way in which information is collected, how to share and process information between the legal and military authorities in order to coordinate the implementation of the instructions, in accordance with the provisions of the Regulation, approved by that country. The implementation of such an operation is subject to the implementation of legal constraints on the interpretation and validation of information in order to create suspicion or assurance of national or transnational crimes by individuals within the territorial waters of a country. In the metropolitan areas, achieving such goals depends on the cooperation of the Commonwealth countries. Currently, there are two LRIT systems in the field of data collection in the domestic seas and VBSS operations in the area of data collection in the territorial seas of the countries and beyond. The implementation of such processes under international law with challenges such as the international cooperation mechanisms, the existence of rules on the sharing of military intelligence, the existence or lack of military capabilities of countries in collecting information, in particular, the warships in free waters, the type The competence, the scope of the competence and validation of information, the manner in which information is collected, the consent or dissatisfaction of a particular government of a suspect, etc., which strengthens the necessity of ratification of international conventions in this regard.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Maritime Law
  • Maritime Security
  • Territorial Jurisdiction
  • VBSS Operations

فهرست منابع

Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, opened for signature Dec. 4, 1995, 2167 U.N.T.S. 3. www.un.org › Search Oceans and Law of the Sea site.
Arctic Sunrise (Neth. v. Russ.), Case No 2014-02, Award on Jurisdiction (Perm. Ct. Arb. 2014), http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/21., 2014.
Australia, MSC 79/5/12, Measures to Enhance Maritime Security: Long-Range Identification and Tracking of Ships (Sept. 24, 2004), http://merchantmarine.financelaw.fju.edu.tw/data/IMO/MSC/79/MSC%2079-5-12.pdf., 2004.
Australian Government, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Australian Border Force, Protecting Our Borders, https://www.border.gov.au/australian-border-force-abf/protecting (last visited July 19, 2017). Related online edition https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:p2m2l2b83v0j; https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/australian-border-force-Abf/Protecting+&Cd=1&Hl=En&Ct=Clnk&Gl=Ir&Client=Firefox-B-Ab, 2017
Barrett, Jill & Richard Barnes eds. The Following Section Draws Substantially on Research Previously Published. See Guilfoyle, Douglas. “Maritime Security.” In Law of the Sea: Unclos as a Living Treaty (Jill Barrett & Richard Barnes eds., 2016), https://issuu.com/marvinsfreeunderground/docs/maritime_security_and_the_law_of_th.
Bateman, Sam. “Regional Navies and Coast Guards: Striking a Balance between “Lawships” and Warships.” In Naval Modernisation in South-East Asia: Nature, Causes and Consequences. edited by Geoffrey Till & Jane Chan eds. Oxford: Hart Publshing Ltd., 2014.
Bateman, Sam. Securing Australia’s Maritime Approaches, 3 Security Challenges https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00908320701831922?src=recsys, 2007.
Brown, Thomas M. “For the “Round and Top of Sovereignty”: Boarding Foreign Vessels at Sea on Terror-Related Intelligence Tips.” 59 Naval Law Review 63, 77 (2010). https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/2791862/176485_14_Back_matter.pdf.
Bueger, Christian. “What is Maritime Security?.” 53 Marine Policy 159 (2015), online edition https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14003327, 2004.
Bush, President George W. National Security Presidential Directive NSPD-41/Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-13, at 5 (Dec. 21, 2004), https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/nspd41.pdf.
Carsten, Michael D. (ed). Maritime Domain Awareness, US Naval War Colledge Digital Comments, Digital Commons. usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1160&context=ils, 2007
Colby, Jonathan E. “The Developing International Law on Gathering and Sharing Security Intelligence.” 1 Yale Studies in World Public Order 49, 53 (1974), digitalcommons.law.yale.edu › YJIL › Vol. 1 (1974) › Iss. 1.
Commandant of the United States Coast Guard, The U.S. Coast Guard Strategy for Maritime Safety, Security, and Stewardship 26 (2007), Http://Www.Hsdl.Org/?View&Did=470382., 2007.
Commission Communication, Towards the Integration of Maritime Surveillance: A Common Information Sharing Environment for the EU Maritime Domain, COM (2009) 538 final (Oct. 15, 2009), http://eurlex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52009DC0538&from=EN.
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, Mar. 10, 1988, 1678 U.N.T.S. 221. hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/maritime-navigation-safety.html, 1988
Department of Homeland Security, Small Vessel Security Strategy, at i (2008), http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=485572.
Deputy Secretary of Defense, DoD Dir. 5525.5, DoD Cooperation with Civilian Law EnforcementOfficials¶E4.3(1986). https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:xEf7xkUVu0J:https://www.hsdl.org/%3Fabstract%26did%3D421+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab, 1986.
Dirk C. Sonnenberg, Maritime Law Enforcement: A Critical Capability for the Navy? 13 (Mar.2012) (unpublishedM.A.thesis,NavalPostgraduateSchool),http://calhoun.nps.edu/handle /10945/6873., 2012
European Union Naval Force: Mediterranean Operation Sophia, EEAS (Sept. 15, 2016), https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/factsheet_eunavfor_med_en_0.pdf.
Eve De Coning, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in the Fishing Industry (2011), http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/2011/issue-paper-transnational-organizedcrime-in-the-fishing-industry.html.
Friman & Lindborg, supra note 6; Douglas Guilfoyle, Counter-Piracy Law Enforcement and Human Rights, 59 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 141 (2010). www.academia.edu/219914/CounterPiracy_Law_Enforcement_and_Human_Rights.
Gary L. Tomasulo Jr. “Evolution of Interagency Cooperation in the United States Government: The Maritime Operational Threat Response Plan 3 (June 2010)” (unpublished M.B.A. thesis) related:https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/59157, 2010
Guilfoyle, Douglas, Shipping Interdiction and the Law of the Sea91, 19495, 212 (2007). assets.cambridge.org/97805217/60195/frontmatter/9780521760195_frontmatter.pdf.
Guilfoyle, Douglas. “SS Lotus.” In Landmark Cases in Public International Law, edited by Cameron Miles & Eirik Bjorge eds., forthcoming2017)digitalcommons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1708&context=ils, 2017.
Håkan Friman & Jens Lindborg. “Initiating Criminal Proceedings with Military Force: Some Legal Aspects of Policing Somali Pirates by Navies.” In Modern Piracy: Legal Challenges and Responses, https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:LoMdwXgGiEYJ: https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/modern-piracy+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab, 2012.
Handeyside, Hugh. “The Lotus Principle in ICJ Jurisprudence: Was the Ship Ever Afloat?.” 29 Michigan Journal of International Law 71 (2007): 78-80. https://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1145&context=mjil.
Harrison. Making The Law of the Sea: a Study in the Development of International Law 16162 (2011). https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/making-the-lawofthesea/B7BF1A5ADF126D1ED664A59809455959.
Hertogen, “Letting Lotus Bloom.” 26 European Journal of International Law 901 (2015)
Hot Pursuit (Last visited 4 october 2018) https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Hot+Pursuit, 2018.
Howard, Minister John. Strengthening Offshore Maritime Security (Dec. 14, 2004)). related: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3663165.
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea ch. 5, reg. 19-1, ¶ 5.3, Nov. 1, 1974, 1184U.N.T.S.278 (2007 revision) [hereinafterSOLAS] ibaness.org/conferences/prilep/ibaness_prilep_proceedings_19_December_2016.pdf, 2016.
International Expert Group on Piracy off the Somali Coast, Piracy off the Somali Coast: Final Report 22 (2008), http://www.imcsnet.org/imcs/docs/somalia_piracy_intl_experts_report_consolidated.pdf.
International Maritime Organization, MSC.1/Circ.1415, Amendments to the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual11 (May 25, 2012), http:/www.mardep.gov.hk/en/msnote/pdf/msin1242anx1.pdf.
Klein, Maritime Security and the Law of the Sea 227 (2012). https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:bgdv_SJbhiUJ:https://global.oup.com/academic/product/maritimesecurityandthelawofthesea9780199566532+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab.
Klein, Natalie. “Legal Implications of Australia’s Maritime Identification System.” 55 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 337, 337 (2006), https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:J3hYAHqubEJ: https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/legalimplicationsofaustraliasmaritimeidentification-system+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab.
Klein, Natalie. Maritime Security and the Law of the Sea 211 (2012). related: https://books.google.com/books/about/Maritime_Security_and_the_Law_of_the_Sea.html?id=ODla01—tisC.
Kraska, James. “Broken Taillight at Sea: The Peacetime International Law of Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure.” 16 Ocean and Coastal Law Journal 1 (2011), http://digitalcommons.mainelaw.maine.edu/oclj/vol16/iss1/2.
Kraska, James. “Putting Your Head in the Tiger's Mouth: Submarine Espionage in Territorial Waters.” 54 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 164 (2015). jtl.columbia.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2015/12/Kraska_54-CJTL-164.pdf.
Maritime Safety Committee, MSC 81/25, Report of the Maritime Safety Committee on its Eighty-First Session 5.84 (May 24, 2006). Note, however, the opposition of China to such information being sought of vessels not intending to call at a State’sorthttp://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:VYyQY6z0KzgJ:www.imo.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/IndexofIMOResolutions/Maritime-Safety-Committee-(MSC)/Pages/default.aspx+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab, 2006.
Maritime Safety Committee, MSC 81/25/Add.2, Report of the Maritime Safety Committee on its Eighty-First Session annex 43 (June 1, 2006). https://www.dco.uscg.mil/.../Marine%20Safety%20Center/.../Committee%20Docs/MSC, 2006.
McGrath, Catherine. “Government Boosts Maritime Security, ABC.” Dec. 15, 2004. http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2004/s1266082.htm.
McLaughlin, Rob, & Tamsin Phillipa Paige. “The Role of Information Sharing in Counter Piracy in the Horn of Africa Region: A Model for Transnational Criminal Enforcement Operations.” 12 Journal of International Law and International Relations 82, 92 (2016): 82-119.
Murdoch, Andrew and Douglas Guilfoyle. “Capture and Disruption Operations: The Use of Force in Counter Piracy off Somalia.” In Modern Piracy: Legal Challenges and Responses, edited by Douglas Guilfoyle, 147-171. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016.
National Security Act of 1947, Pub. L. No. 80-523, § 102 (codified as amended at 50 U.S.C. § 3036(d)(1) (2012)). legcounsel.house.gov/Comps/CIA49.pdf.
Nimmich, Joseph L., & Dana A. “Goward. Maritime Domain Awareness: The Key to Maritime Security.” In Global Legal Challenges: Command of The Commons, Strategic Communications and natural disasters 57, www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a605285.pdf
Nong Hong, “China’s Newly Formed Coast Guard and Its Implication for Regional Maritime Disputes.” 28 Ocean Year Book 611, 618 (2014). https://webcache.googleuercontent.com/search?q=cache:9fxK5Z15Q5oJ:https://amti.csis.org/chinasmaritimelawenforcementreformanditsimplicationontheregionalmaritimedisputes/+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab.
Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, 18U.S.C.§1385(2012). https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42659.pdf, 2012.
Proelss, Alexander ed. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Commentary 754, Digital Commons. usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1708&context=ils, 2017.
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime art. 7, opened for signature Nov.15, 2000, 2241U.N.T.S.507. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:i3ROXmqFtB8J:https://treaties.un.org/pages/viewdetails.aspx%3Fsrc%3Dind%26mtdsg_no%3Dxviii12b%26chapter%3D18%26lang%3Den+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab, 2000.
Protocol to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, Nov. 1, 2005, IMO Doc. LEG/CONF.15/21 [hereinafter SUA Protocol2005]. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265048070_THE_RIGHT_OF_VISIT_AND_THE_2005_PROTOCOL_ON_THE_SUPPRESSION_OF_UNLAWFUL_ACTS_AGAINST_THE_SAFETY_OF_MARITIME_NAVIGATION, 2005.
Rabasa, Angel and Peter Chalk. Non-Traditional Threats and Maritime Domain Awareness in the Triborder Area of South East Asia: The Coast Watch System of the Philippines 21. https://www.Rand.Org/Content/Dam/Rand/Pubs/Occasional.../2012/Rand_Op372.Pdf, 2012.
Rahman, (referring to SOLAS Regulation 19-1, 8.1.2) solasv.mcga.gov.uk/regulations/ regulation19_1.htm, 2011.
Rahman, Chris. “Maritime Domain Awareness in Australia and New Zealand.” In Maritime Security: International Law and Policy Perspectives from Australia and New Zealand. 200, 211 related:ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1087&context=lawpapers, 2011
Report of the International Law Commission to the General Assembly, 11 UN GAOR Supp. No. 9, at 284, U.N. Doc. A/3159 (1956), reprinted in [1956] 2 Y.B. Int’l. L. Comm’n. 284 (commentary to Article 46) (emphasis added). related:https://www.jstor.org/stable/1122386, 1956.
Roach, J. Ashley & Robert W. Smith. United States Responses to Excessive maritime claims 481 (2 ded. 1996). www.faculty.virginia.edu/jnmoore/pdf/moore-ocean-law-&-policy-vol-02.pdf.
Rothwelleds, Donald R., Joanna Mossop Natalie Klein, (2010), www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/ANZMarLawJl/2010/6.pdf.
Sales, Nathan Alexander. “Mending Walls: Information Sharing after the Usa PATRIOTAct.” 88 Texas Law Review 1795, 1821 (2010); https://www.law.gmu.edu/assets/files/publications/working.../1016MendingWalls.pdf.
Sengupta, Somini, & Keith Bradsher. “Mumbai Terrorist Siege Over, India Says.” NewYork Times (Nov. 28, 2008), http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/29/world/asia/29mumbai.Html.
Shearer, Ivan. “Problems of Jurisdiction and Law Enforcement against Delinquent Vessels.” 35 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 320, 330 (1986). https://www.icrc.org/en/download/file/56141/irc98_6.pdf.
Sloan, Alfred P. School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/59157/659552377MIT.pdf?sequence=2, related online edition http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:hryp3AKxAsUJ:paperity.org/p/83159515/maritimelawenforcementoperationsandintelligenceinanageofmaritimesecurity+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab.
Sonnenberg, Quoting Commandant of the Marine Corps, Chief of Naval Operations & Commandant of the Coast Guard, Naval Operations Concept 2010: Implementing the Maritime Strategy 35 (2010), https://www.uscg.mil/history/docs/2010NOC.pdf.
Spiermann, Ole. International Legal Argument in the Permanent Court of International Justice 254 (2005), https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/international-legal-argument-in-thepermanent-court-of-international-justice/06D764C09DFAAD095960767B70953BE0.
SUA Protocol, supra note 73, art. 8bis(5)(d), (e) (setting out provisions for deemed consent after the lapse of four hours from the request in certain circumstances or complete waiver of the consent requirement). https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/58426.pdf, 2005.
Till, Geoffrey, Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century 302 (2004). related: scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za/pub/article/download/84/113.
Transport Canada, Maritime Domain Awareness, CANADA.CA, http://www.tc.gc.ca/ eng/marinesecurity/initiatives-235.htm (last visited July 19, 2017).
U.N. Secretary-General, Oceans and the Law of the Sea, 20, U.N. Doc. A/67/79/Add.1 (Aug. 31, 2012). www.un.org/en/development/desa/.../generalassembly/docs/.../A_RES_67_78.pdf.
U.S. Government, the U.S. Department of the Navy or the U.S. Naval War College. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:U1j_cMfmE_EJ:https://usnwc.edu/+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982: A Commentary 245 (Myron H. Nordquist, Satya N. Nandan & Shabtai Rosenne eds., 1995). https://brill.com/view/serial/LAOS, 1995.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea art. 25(2), opened for signature Dec. 10, 1982, 1833U.N.T.S.397[hereinafterUNCLOS].www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Transnational Organized Crime in Eastern Africa: A Threat Assessment 3-4, 11-15 (2013), http://www.unodc.org/documents/dataandanalysis/Studies/TOC_East_Africa_2013.pdf.
United States, MSC 80/3/3, Long-range Identification and Tracking of Ships 5.3 (Nov. 12, 2004). www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Safety/Navigation/Documents/LRIT/1294-Rev-5.pdf.
Usa PATRIOTAct of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, § 218, 115 Stat. 272 (1971) (codified at50U.S.C.§§1804(a)(6)(B),1823(a)(6)(B)(2012)). https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/50/1804.
Vervaele, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 §§ 106, 305 codifiedasamendedat 50U.S.C.§§1806,1825(2012)) digitalcommons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1708&context=ils, 2012.
Vervaele, John A. E. “Terrorism and Information Sharing between the Intelligence and Law Enforcement Communities in the US and the Netherlands: Emergency Criminal Law?.” 1 Utrecht Law Review 1, 2 (2005). related: https://www.utrechtlawreview.org/articles/10.18352/ulr.1/galley/1/download/.
Wendel, Philipp. State Responsibility for Interferences with the Freedom of Navigation in Public International Law 51 (2007). www.beckshop.de/fachbuch/inhaltsverzeichnis/9783540743323_TOC_001.pdf.
Wilson, Brian. “Five Maritime Security Developments That Will Resonate for a Generation.” Harvard National Security Journal (Mar. 11, 2015), http://harvardnsj.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Wilson-NSJ-Article-PDF.pdf, 2015.
Wilson, Brian. “Reshaping Maritime Security Cooperation: The Importance of Interagency Coordination at the National Level.” In Modern Piracy: Legal Challenges and Responses. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:wWb01v6rcIJ; https://www.eelgar.com/shop/modernpiracy%3F___website%3Duk_warehouse+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ir&client=firefox-b-ab.