ضوابط حاکم بر بررسی اسناد در حقوق اعتبارات اسنادی

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد حقوق تجارت بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه حقوق اقتصادی، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

اعتبار اسنادی که از آن به‌عنوان شریان حیاتی تجارت بین‌الملل یاد می‌شود، به‌دلیل ویژگی‌های منحصربه‌فرد خود در زمرة رایج‌ترین روش‌های پرداخت و تأمین مالی در معاملات بین‌المللی قرار دارد. در عملیات اعتبار اسنادی، پرداخت وجه اعتبار منوط به ارائه اسناد منطبق از سوی ذی‌نفع، بررسی اسناد از سوی بانک و تشخیص انطباق آنها می‌باشد که مرحله بررسی اسناد در تحقق عملکرد اعتبارات اسنادی و وصول وجه اعتبار نقش کلیدی دارد. بانک‌ها در بررسی اسناد از قواعد و الزامات معینی پیروی می‌کنند که می‌توان آنها را زیر عناوین اعمال مراقبت معقول، بررسی ظاهری اسناد، زمان مقرر جهت بررسی، هماهنگی میان اسناد، اسناد و اطلاعات اضافی و شروط غیراسنادی دسته‌بندی نمود. بدیهی است که تبیین دقیق موازین و ضوابط حاکم بر چگونگی بررسی اسناد توسط بانک‌ها با هدف کاهش ریسک معاملات و تثبیت جایگاه نهاد اعتبار اسنادی از اهمیت بسزائی برخوردار است و سبب می‌شود که ذی‌نفع با مشکل عدم‌پرداخت غیرموجه، متقاضی با مشکل پرداخت غیرقانونی و بانک‌های متعهد با مشکل عدم‌ِامکان بازپرداخت وجه روبه‌رو نشوند. در این نوشتار، نویسندگان می‌کوشند با تکیه بر مقررات یکسان اعتبارات اسنادی، رویه‌های استاندارد بانکداری بین‌المللی، نظرات و تصمیمات اتاق بازرگانی بین‌المللی و آرای برجسته رویه قضایی به برخی ابهامات و معضلات موجود در این حوزه پاسخ دهند.‏‎‎

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rules Governing the Examination of Documents in the Law of Documentary Letters of Credit

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Lesani 1
  • Said Shojaei Arani 2
1 M.A. in International Trade Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Economic Law Department, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Documentary letter of credit which has been described as the lifeblood of the international trade is one of the most common methods of payment and financing in international transactions, due to its special features. In the documentary credit operation, the realisation of the credit depends on compliant presentation by the beneficiary and examination and determination of presentation compliance by the banks, and the phase of checking documents plays a key role in implementation of the said process. The examination of documents by the issuing bank, confirming bank and nominated bank is subject to certain rules and requirements which can be raised under the titles including applying reasonable care, reviewing documents on their face, prescribed time for examination, consistency of documents, additional documents and data and non-documentary requirements. Obviously, the exact identification of rules and regulations governing the examination of documents by banks is of great importance in order to reduce the risk of transactions and stabilize the validity of letters of credit, and causes the beneficiary, applicant and banks not to encounter unjustified non-payment, illegal payment and lack of reimbursement respectively. This article attempts to respond the difficulties and ambiguities in this area on the basis of the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, the International Standard Banking Practice, other opinions and decisions of the International Chamber of Commerce and leading judgments in the case law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Documentary letter of credit
  • Presentation of Documents
  • Examination Rules
  • Presentation Compliance

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