مسئولیت انضباطی قضات در نظام حقوقی کامن‫لا: مطالعة تطبیقی ایالات‌متحده آمریکا، کانادا و انگلستان

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

دکترای حقوق عمومی، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه اِکس مارسی 3 فرانسه/ مدرس دانشگاه، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

حقوق انضباطی شاخه‫ای از حقوق عمومی است که قواعد حاکم بر مجازات تخلّفات کارکنان یک نهاد را ـ که جایگاه و شأن واحدی دارند ـ بررسی می‌کند. حقوق انضباطی، حقوق جزا نیست و هدف مجازات در این دو شاخه از حقوق یکسان نیست. هدف در حقوق جزا، می‫تواند نقش بازدارندگی برای مجرم، تأدیب بزهکار و تشفی خاطر بزه‫دیده باشد درحالی‌که مجازات‫ها در حقوق انضباطی با هدف اصلی حفظ و اجرای صحیح وظایف شغلی اعمال می‌شوند. رفتار قضات به‌دلیل جایگاه و قدرتی که درباره جان، مال، عرض و ناموس شهروندان دارند، آثار سرنوشت‫ساز یا سرنوشت‫سوزی بر زندگی مراجعان به دادگاه‫ها دارد. به همین دلیل در همه کشورهای پیشرفته نظام‫نامه‫های رفتاری و کدهای اخلاقی برای تعریف مسئولیت انضباطی قضات پیش‫بینی شده است. در همین راستا در سال 1390 قانون نظارت بر رفتار قضات در ایران به‌تصویب رسیده که مطالعه تطبیقی نظام‫های حقوقی مختلف می‌تواند در شناسایی نقاط ضعف و قوت این قانون مؤثر باشد. بررسی جایگاه و مقررات انضباطی قضات در کشورهای مبتنی‌بر نظام حقوقی کامن‫لا، باتوجه‌به نقش و جایگاهی که قاضی در این نظام‌ها دارد، می‌تواند معیار سنجش مناسبی برای شناسایی کمبودهای پیش‫بینی‌شده در قوانین و مقررات ایران به‌دست دهد. به این منظور و در این مقاله، نهاد مسئولیت انضباطی قضات را در سه کشور آمریکا، انگلیس و کانادا بررسی می‫کنیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Disciplinary Responsibilities of Judges in Common Law Legal Systems: A Comparative Study in the Contexts of USA, England, and Canada

نویسنده [English]

  • Azadeh Abdollahzadeh Shahrbabaki
Ph.D. in Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Aix-Marseille, France, Researcher, Shiraz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Disciplinary law, as a subcategory of public law, investigates the major regulations of the punishments for the employees of a highly creditable organization. Disciplinary law is different from criminal law and the purpose of punishment in these two types of law is not the same. In the criminal law, the purpose of punishment might be criminal deterrence, delinquent civilization and training, or victim cooling, whereas in disciplinary law, the major purpose of punishment is to monitor the maintenance and correct carrying of job responsibilities. Because of the position and authority of judges, their behavior would have important positive or negative effects on the lives and rights of litigators. Therefore, in the developed countries, the behavioral manuals and moral codes are set for the definition of disciplinary responsibilities of judges. In the same vein, the control of judge behavior law was legislated in 1390 in Iran. A comparative study of the different legal systems can contribute to the identification of weaknesses and strength points of the legislated law. Moreover, the investigation of position and disciplinary regulations of judges in those countries which have their legal system based on the Common Law can be a suitable criterion of measurement for identification of predicted shortcomings in the law and regulations of Iran with respect to the position and role of judges in these systems. For this purpose, the present study investigates the issue of judge’s disciplinary responsibilities in the contexts of United States of America, England, and Canada.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Disciplinary Offense
  • Code of Conduct
  • Common Law

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شیروی، عبدالحسین. حقوق تطبیقی. تهران: سمت، 1391.
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