بومی ها و جوامع محلی در حقوق بین الملل حفاظت از جانوران وحشی

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده حقوق و کرسی حقوق بشر، صلح و دموکراسی یونسکو در دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.

2 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.

چکیده

عرصه بین‌الملل در چند دهه گذشته شاهد ظهور تنوعی از بازیگران غیردولتی از جمله بومی‌ها و جوامع محلی بوده است و تأکید تدریجی بر رهیافت‌های پایین به بالا نسبت به توسعه پایدار، بر ضرورت وجود این بازیگران صحه گذارده و قدرت بخشیدن به آنها را شرطی اساسی در مبارزه با چالش‌های جهانی قلمداد نموده است. مقاله حاضر در پی آن است که میزان امتزاج ارزش‌ها و اعمال سنتی بومی‌ها و جوامع محلی را در سیاستگذاری‌های بین‌المللی تعیین و جایگاه گروه‌های مزبور را به ویژه در حقوق بین‌الملل حفاظت از جانوران وحشی مورد بررسی قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Indigenous and Local Communities under International Wildlife Protection Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Janet Elizabeth Blake 1
  • Fatemeh Rezaipour 2
چکیده [English]

International era, in the last few decades, has witnessed the emergence of a variety of non-governmental actors such as indigenous and local communities and the gradual emphasis on bottom-up approaches to sustainable development, has proved the necessity for the presence of these actors and has considered empowering them a basic prerequisite in the struggle with global challenges. The present article aims to determine the extent to which the values and traditional practices of indigenous and local communities are integrated into international policy making and investigate their situation especially in international wildlife protection law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Indigenous and Local Communities
  • traditional knowledge
  • sustainable development
  • International Wildlife Protection Law
  • Human Rights Law
  • Cultural Heritage Law
  • Intellectual Property Law

 منابع فارسی

1. رولان، نوربر. انسان‌شناسی حقوقی. ترجمه امیر نیک‌پی. تهران: جنگل، 1385.

 

منابع خارجی

1. Aargau, S. V. Switzerland Bundesgerich, Federal Tribunal: 1 Nov. 2000.

2. Blake J. E. International Wildlife Protection Law, Shahid Beheshti University, forthcoming 2012.

3. Blake, J. E. “The Importance and Legal Significance of the Role of Cultural Diversity in the Preservation of Biological Diversity”, Environmental Sciences 1 (Autumn 2003): 15-26.

4. Brown C., Sovereignty, Rights and Justice: International, Political Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity, 2002. 

5. Bursh, R. L. “Indigenous Knowledge and Biodiversity in Indigenous Peoples, their Environment and Territories” in: D. A. Posey (ed.), Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity, IT Publications, 1999.

6. CaldwellL. K. L., International Environmental Policy, Duke University Press, 1992.

7. Cobo, K. M. Study of the Problem of Discrimination against Indigenous Populations, UN Document E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7Add.4,Para. 379.

8. Dutfield G., Intellectual Property, Biogenetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge, Earthscan, 2004.

9. Dutfield G.,  “Protecting Traditional Knowledge and Folklore: A Review of Progress in Diplomacy and Policy Formation”, UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development UNCTAD-ICTSD ISSUE Paper No.1 (2003)

10. Fitzmaurice M. Contemporary Issues in International Environmental Law, Edward Elgar Publishing Inc. 2009.

11. Goodland R. and H.E. Daly, “ Poverty Alleviation Is Essential for Environmental Sustainability”, Environ. Work. Pap. No. 42. Washington D.C. World Bank (1993)

12. Henriksen John B., “Key Principles in Implementing ILO Convention 169, Program to Promote ILO Convention No. 169, (2008): 8.

13. King R. T., “The Future of Wildlife in Forest Land Use”, Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conferences 12 (1947): 454-467.

14. Lasimbang J., “Indigenous Peoples and Local Economic Development”, @Local.glob, Issue No. 5 (2008)

15. Leopold A. A Sand Almanac, New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.

16. Lichtenstein G., “ Vicuna Conservation and Poverty Alleviation? Andean Communities and International Fiber Markets” International Journal of Commons, 4 (1) (2010).

17. Nnadozie K. African Perspectives on Genetic Resources: A Handbook on Laws, Policies and Institutions Governing Access and Benefit Sharing, Environmental Law Institute, 2003.

18. O’Neal Amy E. et. al., “Human Economics, the Land Ethic, and Sustainable Conservation”, Biology, 9 (1), (1995): 217.

19. Pakse L.,“Wildlife Conservation and Local Communities in Sarawak, Malaysia”, Paper Presented at the Second Regional Forum for Southeast Asia of the IUCN World Commission for Protected Areas, Dec. 1999.

20. Paterson B., “Ethics for Wildlife Conservation: Overcoming the Human-Nature Dualism”, Bioscience, 56 (2) (2006): 144-150.

21. Posey D. A. and G. Dutfield, Beyond Intellectual Property: Toward Traditional Resource Rights for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities, International Development Research Center, Ottawa, 1996.

22. Sands Ph. Principles of International Environmental Law, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

23. Western D, “Conservation Science in Africa and the Role of International Collaboration”, Conservation Biology 17(1) (2003): 11-19.

 

منابع اینترنتی

1. http://www.uow.edu.au/~sharonb/STS300/equity/meaning/integen.html.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/community available through http://www.jstor.org/stable/2385406.

2. Convention for Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003), available online at: http://www.unesdoc.org/images/0013/001325/13254oe.pdf

3. International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Nov. 3, 2001, available online at: http://www.fao.org/Legal /TREATIES.

4. The Antarctic Environmental Protocol (1991-2011), available at: http://asoc.org/storage/documents/Meetings/ATCM/XXXIV/The_Antarctic_Environmental_Protocol_1991-2011.

5. World Conference on Science, Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge, Budapest, 1999 online available at: http://www.unesco.org/general/eng/programmes/science/wcs/eng/declaration_e.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle.

www.iwcoffice.org/conservation and management/

 http://www.unep.org/igb/pdf/sustainableuse.pdf.

http://www.manitobachiefs.com/policy/research/documents/FPIC_ENG_11;908WEB.pdf

معاهدات و دیگر اسناد حقوقی

1. Agreement on Conservation of Polar Bears, Oslo, 15 Nov. 1973, in force May 1976 [13 ILM 13 (1973)].

2. CBD COP7, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, 9-20 Feb. 2004, Decision VII/16F, Akwe: Kon, Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Regarding Developments Proposed to Take Place on, or which are Likely to Impact on Sacred Sites and on Lands.

3. Charter of the United Nations, 59 Stat. 1031, TS No. 993.

4. Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, The Hague, 5. Netherlands, 7-19 April 2002 [CBD COP 6], Decision VI/24, “Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization”.

6. Convention for the Conservation and Management of the Vicuna (Lima), 20 7. Dec. 1979, IELMT 979:94.

7. Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 23 Nov. 1972, 27 UST 37; 1037 UNTS 151.

8. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Sixty-first Meeting of the Standing Committee, Geneva(Switzerland) 15-19 Aug: 2011, S C 61 Doc.42.

9. Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, 17    June 1994, 33 ILM (1994).

10. Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the Conservation of Wild Birds [OJ L 103, 25 April 1979.

11. Decision 24 COM. WHC. 11/01, Nov.2011, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of World Heritage Convention.

12. Declaration from the Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, September 2002).

13. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007), G.A.Res.61, 1295, U.N.Doc.A/RES/47/1(2007).

14. Interim Convention on Conservation of North Pacific Fur Seals 1976, 27 UST 3371.

15. International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (Washington) 2 Dec. 1946, 16/UNTS 72.

16. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Dec. 16, 1966, G.A. Res. 2200(xxI) 1.

17. J P Kastrup-tex.Int’l/LJ, 1997-Heinonline.

18. Mataatua Declaration on Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous People - June 1993, 823 U.N.T.S. 231, 10 I.L.M. 289 (1993), proclaimed by the General Assembly in its resolution 45/164 of 18December 1990.

19. Operational Directive (OD 4.20) on “Indigenous Peoples”.

20. Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, Oct.4, 1991, reprinted in 30 ILM 1461 (1991).

21. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar) 2 Feb. 1971, 22 ILM 698 (1982).

22. Rec.4.10: The Guidelines for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept.

Rec.6.3: Involving Local and Indiginous People in the Management of Ramsar Wetlands, Proceedings of the 6th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (Brisbane, Australia, 19-27 March 1996).

23. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), (1987).

24. Res.5.6: The Additional Guidance for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept.

25..Resolution VII.8: Guidelines for establishing and Strengthening Local Communities and Indigenous People’s Participation in the Management of Wetlands, [“People and Wetlands: The Vital Link”,7th Meeting of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Wetlands, San Jose, Costa Rica, 10-18 May 1999].

26. Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: http://www:cbd.int§decision/cop/?id=12268.

27. Sustainable Use of Biodiversity: Adis Ababa Principles and Guidelines Resolution IX.1 Annex A Adopted by COP3 (1987) and COP7 (1999).

28. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, reprinted in 993 UNTS 3, 6 ILM 360 (1967).

29. The International Labor Organization Convention 169 Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, 27 June 1989, 28 ILM 1382 (1989).

30. UNCED, Agenda 21 (United Nations, 1993).

31. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, U N Doc. A/CONF. 151/S/Rev. 1, 1992, reprinted in 31 ILM 874 (1992).

32. United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human -Environment, U.N. Doc. A/CONF. 48/14/Rev.1 and Corr.1 (1972), reprinted in 11 ILM 1416 (1972)

 United Nations Conference on the Man and Environment, Stockholm-1972 UN Doc. A/CONF in 11 ILM. 1416 (1972).

33. United Nations, World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, U.N.Doc A/CONF. 157/24 (part 1) (1993), reprinted in 32 ILM 1661 (1993).

34. World Charter for Nature 1982, UNGA Res.37/7,28 October 1982; 23ILM 455 (1983).

35. World Development Report (World Bank, 1998).