معاهدات در گذر زمان در رویۀ قضایی: ارزیابی رأی دیوان بین المللی دادگستری در پروندۀ اختلاف بین کاستاریکا و نیکاراگوئه

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

دکترای حقوق بین الملل عمومی و مدرس دانشگاه.

چکیده

مطابق با اصل عام حقوق میان دوره‌ای در حقوق معاهدات، اصطلاحات یک معاهده باید با توجه به زمانی که معاهده منعقد شده است و مطابق با مفاهیمی تفسیر شوند که دارا هستند. از سوی دیگر، این امر بدیهی است که مفهوم همزمان یک اصطلاح همیشه قطعی نیست. بنابراین، باید در حقوق معاهدات جایی برای بررسی معاهداتی خالی گذاشت که در گذر زمان دچار تحول می‌شوند. این مقاله به دنبال پاسخ به این پرسش است که آیا می‌توان بین الزامات ناشی از اصل ثبات در روابط قراردادی ـ که یکی از اصول حقوق معاهدات است ـ و تغییراتی که احیاناً در آینده در معاهده‌ای رُخ می‌دهد سازش برقرار کرد؟ مسأله کلی «معاهدات در گذر زمان» تنشی بین شرایط ثبات و تغییر در حقوق معاهدات را منعکس می‌کند. در این زمینه، تفسیر تکاملی روش ویژه‌ای است که برای تعیین تأثیر گذر زمان بر معاهدات استفاده می‌شود. همچنین، توافق بعدی و رویه بعدی دولت‌های طرف معاهده در تفسیر معاهده، در این مبحث نقش‌های مؤثری ایفا می‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Treaties over time in jurisprudence: Evaluation of the Judgment of the International Court of Justice In the Case Concerning the Dispute Regarding Navigational and Related Rights

نویسنده [English]

  • Farzaneh Seifzadeh
چکیده [English]

According to the general principle of inter-temporal law in the law of treaties, the terms of a treaty must be interpreted on the basis of their meaning at the time the treaty was concluded and according to the meaning which they possessed. But the contemporaneous meaning of a term will not always be decisive. So, we must also leave room for the consideration of treaties which evolve over time. This paper seeks to answer the question of whether can we make balance between the necessary of the principle of stability in the contractual relations, which is one of the principles of the Law of Treaties , and changes that might occur in a treaty in the future? The general question of “treaties in time” reflects the tension between the requirements of stability and change in the law of treaties. In this context, the evolutionary interpretation is a special techniques to determine the effect of the passage of time on treaties. Also, subsequent agreement and subsequent practice of States parties in the interpretation of a treaty play an effective role.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Treaties over time
  • Subsequent agreements and subsequent practice of States
  • The International Court of Justice
  • The evolutionary interpretation
منابع فارسی

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