مشروعیت توسل به زور در قبال دُزدان دریایی سواحل سومالی با تأکید بر لزوم رعایت ملاحظات حقوق بین الملل بشر در جریان اعمال صلاحیت

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

پژوهشگر حقوق بین الملل و فارغ التحصیل از دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.

چکیده

راهزنی دریایی در سواحل سومالی،  شاخ آفریقا، خلیج عدن و اخیراً خلیج گینه در آفریقای غربی در سال‌های اخیر با توجه به گستردگی بحران وارد بر تجارت جهانی و تهدید امنیت و ایمنی دریانوردی، در صدر توجه جامعه بین‌المللی و به ویژه شورای امنیت سازمان ملل متحد قرار گرفته است. در این راستا قطعنامه‌های شورا، حوزه قواعد مضیّق حقوق بین‌الملل راجع به راهزنی دریایی را توسعه بخشیده‌اند، به طوری که جامعه بین‌المللی را به مبارزه تمام عیار (با اِعمال تمام ابزارهای لازم) با دُزدی دریایی و راهزنی مسلحانه علیه کشتی ها در دریا ترغیب می نمایند. البته چنین اقدامات توسل به زوری، وفق قطعنامه‌های شورا باید بر مبنای رعایت قواعد حقوق بشر و حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه انجام گیرد تا واجد مشروعیت قلمداد شود. به علاوه، در این قطعنامه‌ها، شورای امنیت از تمام کشورها و سازمان‌های بین‌المللی درگیر می خواهد که به منظور هماهنگ‌سازی اقدامات خود در مورد تمام جنبه‌های مبارزه با دُزدان دریایی، هر چه سریع‌تر یک «سازوکار همکاری بین‌المللی» را برای مقابله با دُزدی دریایی سومالی و تقویت ظرفیت قضایی کشورهای منطقه برای محاکمه راهزنان دریایی راه‌اندازی نمایند. این مقاله بر آن است تا ابتدا ضمن بررسی ملاحظات حقوق بشری و حقوق بشردوستانه به ویژه تضمینات دادرسی منصفانه، منع شکنجه و رفتارهای غیرانسانی و ظالمانه در جریان اعمال صلاحیت بر راهزنان دریایی و سارقان مسلح در سواحل سومالی و خلیج عدن و سپس تدقیق در رویه دیوان اروپایی حقوق بشر و دیوان بین‌المللی حقوق دریاها، مشروعیت توسل به زور و معیارهای آن را از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل مورد نقد و بررسی قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

“The legitimacy of using force against Pirates off the coast of Somalia; emphasis on the necessity of observing international human rights considerations

نویسنده [English]

  • Zakieh Taghizadeh
چکیده [English]

Piracy and armed robbery against ships at seas off the coast of Somalia, the Hornof Africa, Gulf of Aden and recently the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa have been at the forefront of the attention paid by the international community and specifically the United Nations Security Council to the serious crisis posed against international trade, security and safety of maritime navigation. In this regard, UNSC resolutions have already expanded the narrower scope of international law on piracy so that the international community tempted to fight against piracy and armed robbery against ships at sea extensively by applying all necessary instruments. However, such measures of using of force according to the UNSC resolutions should be carried out based on the international human rights law and international humanitarian law to be considered legitimate. Furthermore, in these resolutions, UNSC urges all States and international organizations involved in fighting against piracy to establish an international cooperation mechanism as a common point of contact for counter-piracy activities near Somalia, and to enhance the judicial capacity of regional states to combat piracy, including the judicial capacity to prosecute pirates. This article aims to investigate about the legitimacy of using force against pirates off the coast of Somalia and the Gulf of Aden, firstly based on an inquiry about the international human rights law considerations (in particular guarantees to a fair trial, prohibition of torture and inhuman and cruel treatment during the exercise of jurisdiction over pirates) and secondly a study on the practice of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and the International Tribunal for the Law Of the Sea (ITLOS).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Piracy
  • use of force
  • Human Rights Law
  • humanitarian law
  • Guarantees to a fair trial
  • UN Security Council Resolutions

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