یک جدال حقوقی تمام عیار: ایتالیا علیه دیوان بین المللی دادگستری

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه علوم قضایی.

چکیده

دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در سال 2012 با صدور رأی پرونده شکایت آلمان علیه ایتالیا مصونیت دولت‌ها و اموال آنها از هر گونه اقدامات قضایی در قلمرو دولت دیگر به دلیل ارتکاب اقدامات ناقض، حقوق بشر را به رسمیت شناخت و براساس آن ضمن پذیرفتن شکایت این کشور اقدامات دادگاه‌های ایتالیا در رسیدگی به پرونده هایی علیه دولت آلمان را خلاف اصل مصونیت دولت‌ها در حقوق بین‌الملل دانست و آن را مبتنی بر حقوق عرفی بین‌المللی و رویه کشورها خواند. اما دیوان قانون اساسی ایتالیا در سال 2014 با صدور رأیی اعلام کرد که اقدام قضایی علیه اموال دولت دیگر در قلمرو کشور دیگر اگر در نتیجه نقض اصول حقوق بشری و ارتکاب جنایات بین‌المللی باشد؛ قابل رسیدگی است. در نتیجه با ردّ نظر دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری معتقد بر این شد حتی اگر عرف نیز این موضوع را تأیید کند، هم اکنون عرف و رویه کشورها در حال تغییر است. در این مقاله سعی می‌شود تا ابعاد این جدال حقوقی بررسی شود و در نهایت با به چالش کشیدن یکی از اصول مهم سال‌های اخیر رعایت شده در حقوق بین‌الملل چهره نظام معاصر این حقوق را تغییر دهد. همچنین شکل‌گیری عرف جدید در این رابطه و چالش کنونی موجود با صدور رأی دیوان قانون اساسی ایتالیا مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comprehensive legal challenge: Italy versus ICJ

نویسنده [English]

  • Faraz shahlaei
چکیده [English]

In 2012 the dispute between Germany and Italy,ICJ endorsed the jurisdictional immunity of States and their properties against any legal challenges by other States and recognized Italy’s responsibility for allowing civil claims based on violations of international humanitarian law, to be brought against the Federal Republic of Germany. The court based its decision on international customary law and the relevant procedure of States. But this was not the end since on 2014 Constitutional Court of Italy declared this judgment in conflict with Italian constitution and paved the way for future civil claims against Germany of any other State based on breaching Jus Cogens and fundamental principles of Human Rights. The Constitutional Court grounded its decision on recent changes in customary international law saying that the previous custom has changed during recent years and a new set of rules created a new custom in this regard. In this paper we analyze different aspects of this legal confrontation which can potentially undermine one of oldest and most important principles of international law and overthrow traditional frameworks of international law environment. The creation of a new custom concerning State immunity and the current challenge following the recent judgment of Italian Constitutional Court is also discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • State Immunity
  • international customary law
  • Jus Cogens
  • legal jurisdiction
  • International Court of Justice
  • Italian constitutional court

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