استفاده از سپر انسانی به مثابه جنایت جنگی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.

2 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق بین الملل، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.

چکیده

اسناد بشردوستانه به ممنوعیت استفاده از سپر انسانی اذعان داشته و اساسنامه دیوان کیفری بین المللی نیز به صراحت آن را از مصادیق جنایت جنگی قلمداد می کند. با این حال شرایط تحقق جرم استفاده از سپر انسانی چندان روشن نیست. مقاله حاضر سعی دارد نقض ممنوعیت استفاده از سپر انسانی به عنوان یکی از مصادیق جنایات جنگی و عناصر و شرایط تحقق آن را بررسی کند. دیگر نقطه تمرکز مهم این پژوهش مسأله استفاده از سپر انسانی در مخاصمات غیر بین‌المللی است که اسناد بین المللی در خصوص آن ساکت به نظر می‌رسند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Using of Human Shield as a War Crime

نویسندگان [English]

  • Homayoon Habibi 1
  • Saleheh Ramezani 2
چکیده [English]

These days we hear many news about using poor people as Human Shield, while Humanitarian regulations have prohibited this action absolutely, even Statute of International Criminal Court (ICC) has considered it as a War Crime. This article surveys the violation of the prohibition on using of Human Shield as a War Crime and its necessary elements and conditions too. On the other hand, whereas Statute of ICC enumerates it as a War Crime in International Armed Conflicts expressly, possibility or not being a War Crime in Non-International Armed Conflicts will be surveyed as well.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Human Shield
  • War Crime
  • International Armed Conflicts
  • Non-International Armed Conflicts
  • International Criminal Court (ICC)

منابع فارسی

1.‌ ساک، کریانگ و کیتی‌ شیایزری. حقوق بین المللی کیفری. ترجمه بهنام یوسفیان و محمد اسماعیلی. تهران: سمت، 1383.

2. هنکرتز، ژان‌ماری، لوئیس دوسوالد‌بک. حقوق بین المللی بشردوستانه عرفی. تهران: مجمع علمی و فرهنگی مجد، 1387.

 

منابع انگلیسی

1. Adalah, The Legal Centre for Arab Minority Rights in Israel v GOC Central Command, IDF (2006) HCJ 3799/02. Accessed April 10, 2013, available in English from http://elyon1.court.gov.il/eng/home/index.html.

2. Al-Duaij, Nada. “The Volunteer Human Shields in International Humanitarian Law”. Oregon Review of International Law 12 (2008): 117-140.

3. Amnesty International. “Gaza: Military Tactics on Both Sides Endangering Civilians”. Accessed January 4, 2013. Available at: http://www.amnesty.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=18000.

4. Bargu, Banu. “Human shields”, Contemporary Political Theory (2013).

5. Benvenisti, Eyal. “Human Dignity in Combat: the Duty to Spare Enemy Civilians”. Israel Law Review 39 (2006): 81-109.

6. Blank, Laurie R. “Taking Distinction to the Next Level: Accountability for Fighters’ Failure to Distinguish Themselves from Civilians”. Valparaiso University Law Review (2012): 765-802.

7. Christensen, Eric R. “The Dilemma of Direct Participation in Hostilities”. The University of Texas Press (2009): 281-309.

8. Dörmann, Knut, Louise Doswald-Beck and Robert Kolb. Elements of War Crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Sources and Commentary. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

9. Dörmann, Knut. “War Crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, with a Special Focus on the Negotiation on the Elements of Crimes”. Max Planck Yearbook of the United Nations Law 7 )2003(: 341-407.

10. European Court of Human Rights. “Soering v. United Kingdom”. Judgement of 7 July 1989. Application No. 14038/88.

11. Fenrick, William J. “Justice in Cataclysm Criminal Trials in the Wake of Mass Violence: Comment: Attacking the Enemy Civilian as a Punishable Offense”. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 7 (1997): 539-570.

12. Fischer, Douglas H. “Human Shields, Homicides, and House Fires: How a Domestic Law Analogy Can Guide International Law Regarding Human Shield Tactics in Armed Conflict”. American University Law Review (2007): 479-521.

13. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, and Louise Doswald-Beck, Customary International Humanitarian Law, Vol. II. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

14. High Court of Justice of Israel. “Early Warning Case”, Available at: http://elyon1.court.gov.il/Files_ENG/02/990/037/a32/02037990.a32. pdf

15. Human Rights Watch. “In a Dark Hour – the Use of Civilians during IDF Arrest Operations”. April 2002.

16. Human Rights Watch. “Off Target: the Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq”. (2003).

17. Human Rights Watch. “International Humanitarian Law Issues in a Potential War with Iraq”. Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper. February 20, 2003. available at: http://hrw.org/backgrounder/arms/iraq0202003.htm#1

18. Human Rights Watch. “Israel/Occupied Territories: Jenin War Crimes Investigation Needed”. Accessed January 10, 2013. Available at:http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2002/05/02/israeloccupied-territories-jenin-war-crimesinvestigation-needed.

19. Human Rights Watch. “Israel: Decision to Stop Use of “Human Shields Welcomed”. Accessed January 10, 2013. Available at:

http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2002/05/09/israel-decision-stop-use-human-shields-welcomed.

20. Human Rights Watch. Genocide, War Crimes, and Crimes against Humanity: a Topical Digest of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2006.

21. ICRC. “The Law of Armed Conflict, Conduct of Operations”. Part A. International Review of Red Cross. 2002.

22. ICRC/International Institute of Humanitarian Law, 30th San Remo Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law, “The Conduct of Hostilities, Background Document”. August 2007. 

23. ICTY. “The Prosecuter v. Dusko Tadic”. Case No. IT-94-1-AR72.

24. ICTY. “The Prosecutor v. Aleksovki”. Appeal Chamber, Case No. IT-95-14/1-A. March 24, 2000.

25. ICTY. “The Prosecutor v. Aleksovki”. Trial Chamber, Judgement. Case No. IT-95-14/1-T, June 25, 1999.

26. ICTY. “The Prosecutor v. Blaskic”. Appeals Chamber, Case No. IT-95-14-A, July 29, 2004.

27. ICTY. “The Prosecutor v. Dragoljub Kunarac and Others”, Appeals Chamber, Judgement. Case No. IT-96-23 and IT-96-23/1-A.

28. ICTY. “The Prosecutor v. Kordic”. Trial Chamber, Judgement. Case No. T-95-14/2-T, February 26, 2001.

29. ICTY. “The Prosecutor v. Zejnil Delalic, Zdravko Municic, Hazim Delic, Esad Lansdo”, (Celebici Case). Case No. IT-96-21-T, Trial Chamber, November 16, 1998.

30. Lyall, Rewi. “Voluntary Human Shields, Direct Participation in Hostilities and the International Humanitarian Law Obligations of States”. Melbourne Journal of International Law 9 (2008).

31. Newton, Michael. “Human Shields as Unlawful Lawfare”. International Relations and Security Network (April 24, 2013).

32. Pilloud, C., Y. Sandoz, C. Swinarski and B., Zimmermann, Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. International Committee of Red Cross. Geneva: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987.

33. Quéguiner, Jean-Francois. “Precautions under the Law Governing the Conduct of Hostilities”. Internatioanl Review of Red Cross 88 (2006): 793- 821.

34. Report on the Seminar on International Humanitarian Law and Current Armed Conflicts: the Involvement of the Civilian Population in Hostilities, February 25, 2011.

35. Rosen, Richard D. “Targeting Enemy Forces in the War on Terror: Preserving Civilian Immunity”. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 42 (2009): 683-777.

36. Rubinstein, Amnon and Yaniv Roznai. “Human shields in Modern Armed Conflicts: the Need for a Proportionate Proportionality”. Stanford Law and Policy Review 22 (2011): 93-128.

37. Sassoli, Marco and Lindsey Cameron. “The Protection of Civilian Objects: Current State of the Law and Issues De Lege Ferenda”, the Law of Air Warfare: Contemporary Issues (2006): 35-74. Available at: http://archiveouverte.unige.ch/vital/access/services/Download/unige:9742/ATTACHMENT01

38. Schmitt, Michael N. “Deconstructing Direct Participation in Hostilities: the Constitutive Elements”. International Law and Politics 42 (2010): 697-739.

39. Schmitt, Michael N. “Human Shields in International Humanitarian Law”. Israel Yearbook on Human Rights (2009): 17-59.

40. Schmitt, Michael N. “Precision Attack and International Humanitarian Law”. International Review of the Red Cross 87 (2005): 445-466.

41. Schoenekase, Daniel P. “Targeting Decisions Regarding Human Shields”. Military Review 84 (2004): 26-31

42. The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/134, U.N. Doc. A/RES/46/134. December 17, 1991.

43. U.N. Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1992/71. “Situation of Human Rights in Iraq”. U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1992/94. March 5, 1992.

44. United Nations Security Council Resolution 664. August 18, 1990.

45. United Nations. “Human Rights in Palestine and Other Occupied Territories - Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict”. Accessed February 2, 2013. Available at: http://image.guardian.co.uk/sysfiles/Guardian/documents/2009/09/15/UNFFMGCReport.pdf.

46. Van Der Vyver, Johan D. “Legal Ramifications of the War in Gaza”. Florida Journal of International Law 21 (2009): 403-448.

47. Willmott, Deidre. “Removing the Distinction between International and non-International Armed Conflict in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”. Melbourne Journal of International Law 5 (2004).

48. Yihdego, Zeray. “The Gaza Mission: Implications for International Humanitarian Law and UN Fact Finding”, Melbourne Journal of International Law 6 (2012): 159-213.