دولت پرتاب کنندۀ اشیای فضایی و تأثیر پروژۀ «سیلانچ» (Sea Launch) بر تحول مفهوم آن

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد حقوق بین الملل، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.

2 استادیار دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.

چکیده

مفهوم «دولت پرتاب‌کننده» یک مفهوم کلیدی در حقوق بین‌الملل فضایی است؛ زیرا به موجب کنوانسیون مسؤولیت مصوب 1972 «دولت پرتاب‌کننده» مسؤول جبران خسارت وارد شده به‌وسیله اشیای فضایی پرتاب شده است و از سوی دیگر، به‌موجب کنوانسیون ثبت مصوب 1975 یک دولت پرتاب‌کننده متعهد به ثبت شیء فضایی پرتاب شده است. در ابتدای عصر فضا و در زمان تدوین معاهدات حقوق بین‌الملل فضایی، دولت‌ها اشیای فضایی خود را از سرزمین خود و با استفاده از تأسیسات خود پرتاب می‌کردند. کم‌کم همکاری دو یا چند دولت منجر به طرح تعدد دولت‌های پرتاب‌کننده گردید که این امر در کنوانسیون مسؤولیت پیش‌بینی شده است، اما امروزه موقعیت‌های جدیدی رخ داده است که مفهوم دولت پرتاب‌کننده را تحت‌تأثیر قرار داده است. یکی از این موقعیت‌های جدید پروژه سی‌لانچ است که به واسطه پرتاب از دریای آزاد، پرتاب از سکوی سیاری که در یک کشور غیر عضو کنوانسیون مسؤولیت به ثبت رسیده است و همچنین حضور نهادهای غیردولتی در قالب یک کنسرسیوم بین‌المللی که میان آنها تاکنون هیچ موافقتنامه‌ای منعقد نگردیده است، موضوع تعیین دولت(های) پرتاب‌کننده و مسؤولیت احتمالی جبران خسارت را تحت‌تأثیر قرار داده است. به‌دنبال مشکل به‌کارگیری مفهوم «دولت پرتاب‌کننده» و خلأ حقوقی به‌وجود آمده که با ارائه پروژه سی‌لانچ آغاز شد، موضوع در مدت زمان کوتاهی در دستور کار کوپوس قرار گرفت و سپس مجمع عمومی سازمان ملل متحد قطعنامه‌ای در خصوص «به‌کارگیری مفهوم دولت پرتاب‌کننده» صادر نمود. در این مقاله سعی بر آن است که مفهوم دولت پرتاب‌کننده اشیای فضایی با توجه به اسناد حقوق بین‌الملل فضایی و تأثیر پروژه سی‌لانچ بر تحول مفهوم «دولت پرتاب‌کننده» بررسی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Launching State of Space Objects and Effect of Sea Launch Project on Development of its Concept

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hosna Khalvandi 1
  • Seyed Hadi Mahmoudi 2
چکیده [English]

The concept of “Launching State” is a key concept in international space law; because under Liability Convention, adopted in 1972, the launching state is liable for damages caused by launched space objects. On the other hands, under Registration Convention, adopted in 1975, the launching state is committed to register the launched space object. At the beginning of space age and in time of codification of international space law treaties, states were launched their space objects from their territory and with their facilities. By and by, cooperation of two or several states led to multiple launching states that are anticipated in liability convention. But nowadays, new situation have occurred that the concept of launching state has affected. One of the new situation is “Sea Launch project” that due to launching from high seas, launching from mobile platform that is registered in a non-member state of the Liability Convention, and also presence of non-governmental entities in the form of an international consortium that among them so far no agreement has been concluded, the subject of determination of launching state(s) and possible liability has affected. In a short while, considering the problem which exists in the application of the concept of launching state and the legal gap that was created within Sea Launch project, it became the subject of the agenda of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPOUS) and then the UN General Assembly issued a resolution on “the Application of the Concept of Launching State”. The purpose of this article is based on the study of the concept of launching state of space objects according to documents of international space law and also study of the effect of the Sea Launch project on the concept of “Launching State”.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Launching State
  • Liability Convention
  • Launching from sea
  • Sea Launch project
  • General Assembly Resolution 59/115

منابع فارسی

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