عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The concept of “Launching State” is a key concept in international space law; because under Liability Convention, adopted in 1972, the launching state is liable for damages caused by launched space objects. On the other hands, under Registration Convention, adopted in 1975, the launching state is committed to register the launched space object. At the beginning of space age and in time of codification of international space law treaties, states were launched their space objects from their territory and with their facilities. By and by, cooperation of two or several states led to multiple launching states that are anticipated in liability convention. But nowadays, new situation have occurred that the concept of launching state has affected. One of the new situation is “Sea Launch project” that due to launching from high seas, launching from mobile platform that is registered in a non-member state of the Liability Convention, and also presence of non-governmental entities in the form of an international consortium that among them so far no agreement has been concluded, the subject of determination of launching state(s) and possible liability has affected. In a short while, considering the problem which exists in the application of the concept of launching state and the legal gap that was created within Sea Launch project, it became the subject of the agenda of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPOUS) and then the UN General Assembly issued a resolution on “the Application of the Concept of Launching State”. The purpose of this article is based on the study of the concept of launching state of space objects according to documents of international space law and also study of the effect of the Sea Launch project on the concept of “Launching State”.
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