عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
International peace and security cannot be established unless the states respect their International obligations thoroughly. One of these obligations is the human rights; norms Which must be respected both during peace and war times. As in many Arab countries of the region, Bahrain experienced the torrents of democratic movements and protests generally known as the "Arab Spring" In pursuit of democracy, the People of the smallest Arab country of Persian Gulf region revolted. Though their demands Had roots in more than four decades ago, but their widespread protests against the Bahraini regime started on 14 February 2011. Bahrain government, in its turn, encountered the protesters harshly and suppressed the movements.In this context the government of Bahrain, ignoring its human rights obligations, tremendously violated citizens' basic rights. In this article we have first enumerated the some Of the most important cases of human rights violations, and then these violations are compared to the relevant treaty obligations of Bahrain.
اول- منابع فارسی
موسوی، فضلالله، و معصومه میرمحمدی. «بررسی جنایت تعقیب و آزار در پرتو وقایع اخیر بحرین.» مجله حقوقی بینالمللی 43 (1389).
گزارش عفو بینالملل، پیرامون نقض حقوق بشر در بحرین. ترجمه عدالتطلبان بدون مرز، 2011.
دوم- منابع انگلیسی
الف) کتب و گزارشها
Willis, Michael J. "Tunisia: The trailblazer and the benchmark." In The Arab Spring: Implications for British Policy, edited by Conservative Middle East Council, London, 2011.
Cordesman, Anthony H. "Egypt and Tunisia (and, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan): Rethinking the Challenge of Instability in the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Developing States." Feb 3, 2011, in https://csis.org/publication/egypt-and-tunisia-and-iraq-afghanistan-and-pakistan.
Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI report). presented in manama, Bahrain, 23 November 2011.
Post BICI Report, Published by BahreinCenter for Human Rights, 26th March 2012.
Bahrain: the Human Price for Freedom and Social Justice, 22 November 2011.
Flawed Reforms, Bahrain Fails to Achieve Justice for Protesters, Amnesty International, 2012.
Report on Bar Human Rights Committee Hearing Observation: Bahrain.
Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights 13th session of the Universal Periodic Review –Bahrain.
ج) مقررات بینالمللی
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966).
the Convention Against Torture, and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984).
Arab Charter on Human Rights (2004).
Human Rights Committee, General Comment 10.
A v Australia, Human Rights Committee, Communication No. 560/1993, CCPR/C/59/D/560/1993.
د) قوانین داخلی بحرین
Constitution of Bahrain 2002.
Decree Law No. 42 of 2002.
Decree Law No. 7 of 2006.
Decree Law No. 16 of 1990.
Decree Law No. 4 of 1998.
Decree Law No. 10 of 2007.
Decree Law No. 56 of 2006.
Decree Law No. 4 of 1998.