تبیین مفهوم صدور و انتقال آلودگی در حقوق بین‌الملل

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

دکترای حقوق بین‌الملل (دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی (ره))

چکیده

قوانین متعدد، اسناد و معاهدات کثیر بین‌المللی در سطوح مختلف در حقوق محیط زیست به وجود آمده‌اند و به جنبه‌های مختلف از محیط زیست پرداخته‌اند. حقوق محیط زیست همیشه و همواره در یک تلاش و مبارزه مستمر برای حل معضل آلودگی بوده، با منشأ آن مبارزه کرده، میزان آن را معین نموده است و همیشه به دنبال یافتن راه حل بوده است. چالش‌های متنوع و متکثر زیست‌محیطی سیاره ما را احاطه کرده است. گسترش آلودگی‌ها و حرکت آن از مناطق تحت صلاحیت یک کشور به مناطق خارج از آن نشان‌دهنده وابستگی متقابل اجزای مختلف محیط زیست در مفهوم عام آن است و دیگر در این دیدگاه، محیط زیست تنها در محیط زیست یک ملت، محصور در یک سرزمین نخواهد بود چون غالب فعالیت‌های انسانی در یک کشور، ممکن است آثاری فراتر از کشور منشأ آن فعالیت داشته باشد. کشفیات علمی نکات مهمی را در حوزه محیط زیست اثبات نموده است. نکته اول یکپارچگی کرۀ زمین است. آلودگی بخشی از کرۀ زمین می‌تواند به بخش دیگری تسری پیدا کند. آلودگی آب باعث آلودگی خاک می‌شود. نکته دوم این است که آلودگی ماهیتاً مرزگذر است و مرز نمی‌شناسد. پرندگان، آب‌ها، جریانات جوی، ناقل آلودگی‌اند. و بالاخره نکته سوم، تأثیر انواع آلودگی بر یکدیگر است. و باید بر این نکات، موضوعی به نام انتقال و صدور آلودگی را نیز افزود که می‌تواند یکی از موضوعات مهم و نگران‌کننده جامعه بین‌المللی باشد. به عبارتی صدور و انتقال آلودگی موضوع می‌افزاید، یعنی علاوه بر اشاعه و نشر آلودگی به لحاظ ویژگی‌های یکپارچگی زیست‌کره و ماهیت خود آلودگی که هرگز نمی‌تواند ساکن و بی‌تحرک باشد، جابه‌جایی، انتقال و صدور مواد آلاینده به قصد اینکه از منشأ آن دور شده و به نقطه دیگر منتقل شود و یا اینکه بدون وجود چنین قصدی، آلودگی با دخالت عامل انسانی به همراه منشأ آن، به نقاط دیگر منتقل می‌شود، واقعیتی انکارناپذیر است. بنابراین تبیین مفهوم و خاصه مقایسه آن با آلودگی‌های فرامرزی بسیار ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Export and Transfer of Pollution in International law

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Hadi Pazhouman
چکیده [English]

Numerous laws, international documents and treaties at different levels were created on environment law and the various aspects the environment were addressed. Air, soil and Water as the main elements of environment have been targeted. Environmental law has always been in constant effort and struggle to solve the pollution problem, has fought its origin, has determined its rate, and is always looking for the answer to the question of what must be done. All this is done because'' the pollution is the primary goal of environmental law.Varied and diverse environmental challenges have surrounded our planet in such a way that the environment, in its general sense, is caught in it. The spread of pollution and its move from areas under the jurisdiction of a country to outside the region represents the interdependence of various components of the environment in general. And in this view, environment would not be an issue of a single nation and would not be bound to a single region, because most human activities in on state may have effects on states beyond  its original state, whether bilateral, regional, meta- regional or international. "Scientific discoveries have proved important points in the field of environment. The first point is the integrity of the Earth. The Earth is unified; i.e; pollution of part of the earth can spread over other parts, water pollution results in soil pollution. The second point is that the contamination is border crossing, it's blind to borders. Birds, water and climate flows are carriers of pollution. Third and finally is the influence of kinds of pollution on each other. To these points; transfer and export of pollution, which can be one of the important and worrying issues of the international community, must be added. In other words, export and transfer of pollution adds to the complexity of the issue, namely in addition to dissemination of pollution, integration features of biosphere and the nature of pollution itself which can never be settled, and transporting and exporting pollutants together with it's origin with human intervention will be transferred to other locations, whether deliberate or unelaborated, is an indisputable fact. Therefore, it is necessary to explain its meaning and compare it with transboundary pollution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pollution
  • export and transfer of pollution
  • transboundary pollutions
  • transboundary pollutions definition
  • comparison between the export and transfer of pollution and transboundary pollution
  • the ways of transfer and export of pollution
حبیبی، محمد حسن، و سیامک سلیم‌زاده. حقوق تجارت بین‌الملل و محیط زیست. چاپ اول. تهران: آثار اندیشه، 1388.

گوندلینگ، لوتار، جی دبیلیو، ای ای هویسمان، ای ای هلپاپ، و دینا شلتون. حقوق محیط زیست، جلد دوم. چاپ اول. ترجمه محمدحسن حبیبی. تهران: دانشگاه تهران، 1381.

Cote, Damien A. "The Economic Sustainability of Global Hazardous Wastes Production." Department of EconomicsCarletonUniversityOttawa, Ontario, August 11, 2005.

Bontux, Laurent, and Fabio Leone. "The Legal Definition of Waste and its Impact on Waste Management in Europe." European Commission- Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies WTC, Spain, November 1997.

Between Metalclad Corporation and the United MexicanStates, Case No. Arb (AF)/97/1. Final Award, InternationalCenter For Settlement of Investment Disputes (Additional Factility), ICSID Review- Foreign Investment Law Journal, Agust 30, 2000.

Bearden, Dvis. M, U.S. Dis posad of Chemical Weapons In the Oceqn: Background and Issues For Congress. Updated Tanuary 3, 2007,p. 3, available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/ natsec/araL33432.pdf.

Damilola Sunday, Olawuyil. "The Emergence of International Law on Chemical an Appraisal of the Rae of Soft Law." The Basel Action Network, Release (2006) at 1. Available at: http://scorn.com/abstract=996430p.4.

Dong Tou, Xiao. "Tran boundary movement of Harmful Wastes And Transformation of Traditional State Responsibility, MqJICEL (2008) VOL. 5 Available: http://www.mq.edu. au/ html/mqJICEL/vol5/1-05tou.pdf.

Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan Training Manual. Volume 4, ISWM Plan, Compiled by UNEP, Osaka/Shiga/Japan. 2009.

D. Hall, Noah. "Trans boundary pollution: Harmonizing International:and Domestic Law." Journal of Law Reform. University of Michigan, volume 40. Issue 4. Summer 2007.

Damato, Antony. available at: http://antonydamato.law.northwestern.edu/iela/interco8- 2001.pdf (5/12/2011).

Draft articles on the law of the non- navigational uses of International watercourse and Commentaries there to and resolution on transboundary Confined groundwater, report of the International Law commission on the work of its forty- sixth session, united Nations, 2005, available at: http://untreated.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/commentaries/8-3-1994.pdf

"Environmental Law Outline." available at: http://ahe.pl/html/samples/b/01992 79217.pdf.

European Waste Catalogue And Hazardous Waste list, Valid From 1 January 2002, available at: http://www.environ.ie/en/publication/environment/waste/wee/filedownload, 1343,en,pdf.

"Environmental Law Outline." available at: http://ahe.pl/html/samples/b/01992 79217.pdf.

Fans Coomans, "The Ongoin Case before the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights." International and Comparative Law Quarterly. vol. 52, July 2003.

Glossary of statistical terms, available at: http://stats.eecd.org/g/ossuary/detail?id=2754, (5/12/2011).

Guidance Manual For the Control of Tranboundary Movements of Recoverable Wastes, OECD, 2009.

http://www.danwatch.dk/en/articles/danmarksportoer-af-el-affald-til-Ghana/155. (8/01/2012)

http://www1.american.edu/ted/arctic.htm (08/01/2012).

http://www1.american.edu/ted/japes.htm (08/01/2012).

http://fa.tpo.ir/parsdesign/files/datacategory/items/634.pdf (10/02/2012).

http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/chapters/026216244xchap1.pdf (17/01/2012).

Hanqin, Xue. "Tranboundary Damage/1/nternational Law, Cambridge university Press, 2003 Harjula, Henrik, "Final Guidance Document For Distinguishing Waste From Non- Waste", Env/ Epoc/ WMP(98)/ REV1, Paris, 23-24 April 1998, available at: http//www.oecd. org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocdocumentpdf/cote=ENV/Epoc/WMP(98)1/rev. (2/01/2012)

Hassoun, Nicole. "Free Trade and the Environment." Environmental Ethice, vol. 31 Spring 2009.

Hassoun, Nicole. "Free, Thade, Poverty, And the Environment." Public Affairs Quarterly, Volume 22, Number 4, October 2008.

Honma, Satoshi and rushi Yoshida. "Did International Trada Become Dirtier in Developing Countries? on the Composition Effect of International Trada on the Environment." Faculty of Economics, KyushuSangyoUniversity, December 2011, available at: http://ideas.repec.org/p/kyu/dpaper/52.html (23/01/2012).

Harlan Reynoleds, Glenn. "Environmental Regulation of Nanotechnology: Some Preliminary Observation." Environmental Law Reporter. Volume, 2001, available at, http:// www.eli.org

Aichinger, Herbert. "Industrial Pollution, European Solutions: Clean Techologies." European Communities, 2004, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/lif/publication/ lifefocus/document/cleantech-en.pdf.

In the Matter of the Arbitration between Compania Del Desarrollo De Santa Elena, S.A. and the Republica of Costarica, Case No. Arb/96/1. Final Award, InternationalCenter for Settlement of Investment Disputes(ICSID), ICSID Review-Foreign Investment Law Journal. Febuary 17 2000.

Jenkis, Rhys. "Has trade liberalization Created Pollution havens In Latin America?." Cepal Review, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, NorwichUnited Kingdom, Volume 80.

Copeland Nagle, John. "The Idea of pollution." Law Review, University of California, Davis, School of Law, Vol, 43, NOV. 2009, Electronic Copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=969681.

Krueger, Jonathan. "The Basel Convention and the International Trade In Hazardous Waste rear book of International co-Operation on Environment and Development." 2001/ 2002, London, Earths can Publications.

Kummer, K. UNSW, 2004, Available at: www.ecoconsult.ch/upload/144-iel-pollution- hazwaste.pdf.

Knight, John. "Dumping of Waste and Other Matters in the Oceans." Chapman Tripp, 2-4 September 2009, available at: http://www.mlaanz.org/uploads/john-knight.pdf.

Larsson, Marie-Louise. "Legal Definitions of Environment and of Environmental Damage." available at: http://www.scandinavianlaw.se/pdf/38-7.pdf.p.15 (5/12/2011).

Mobile resources, See: Federal Register vol. 75, No. 88/ Friday, May 7. 2010/ Rules and Regulations. Available at: http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/notice/75 Fr25730.pdf.

Morimoto, Tetsuya. "Growing Industrial: Zation and aur damaged planel, the extraterritorial application of developed countries' domestic, environmental laws to transnational corporation abroad", Uterecht Law Review, Volume1, issue2 (December)2005

Mathew, Tom V., and KV Krishna Rao. "Introduction to Trans portion Engineering." NPTEL May 7, 2007, available at: http://www.litb.ac.in/nptel/civil (25/02/2012).

 Orhan, Ozguc. "Environmental Justice In World Politics." Alternatives, Turkish Journal of International Relations. Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2009.

Offical Website of the Sunday TIMES neuspaper in sir Lanka. SATURDAY, 26 November 2011, available at http://sundaytimes.lk/index.php (29/02/2012).

Parmentier, Remi. "Green Peace and the Dumping of Wastes at Sea: A Case of Non- State Actors' Intervention in International Affairs." International Negotiation Vol 4, No. 3 (1999), Published by Kluwer Law International, p. 1, available at: http://archive.greenpeace.org/ odumping/radioactive/reports/odhistory.pdf.

Plakokefalos, Ilias. "Prevention of Trans Boundary Pellution in International Law." University of Athens, Faculty of Law, 13 September 2011, p. 11 available: www.ssrn.com

Rasiah, Raja. "Transnational Corporations and the Environment: the case of malaysia." Report as part of UNCTAD/ CBS Project: Cross Environmental Mangement in Transnational Corporation, Copyright by CBS, May 1999.

Sands, Philippe. Principles of International Environmental Law. Second Edition, CambridgeUniversity Press, 2003.

Koffa, Morris T. "Africa remains a dumping site for Hazardous waste, the Weaknesses of the Based and Bamako Conventions." Available at: http://www.theliberiandialogue.org/ articles/c20807tws.htm (17/11/2011).

Uddin, Mahatab. "Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technilogy." A thesis for the degree of Master in Sustainable Devebpment, Sweden: Deparment of Law, UppsalaUniversity, 2011.

UNEP 2005: Marine Litter, A Analytical Overview.

UNDOC Speciol Event, Impact of Corruption on the Environment and the United Nations Convention against Corruption as a Tool to Address It. 4th Conference of States Parties To the UN Convention Against Corruption, 16 October 2011, Marrakech, Morocco. Oliveraie Room