مقابله با بحران سربازگیری کودکان در مخاصمات مسلحانه: نخستین رأی دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی در ترازوی حقوق بین‌الملل

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

کارشناس ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل (دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی)

چکیده

به کارگیری «کودکان سرباز» در مخاصمات مسلحانه توسط دولت‌ها و شبه نظامیان از جمله فجایعی است که علی‌رغم دستاوردهای عظیم بشری در قرن بیست‌ویکم، همچنان گریبان‌گیر جامعه بین‌المللی حاضر است. این در حالی است که وفق ماده 38 کنوانسیون حقوق کودک، «گروه‌های سیاسی نباید از افراد زیر پانزده سال در مخاصمات استفاده نمایند». در راستای توسعه مصادیق مفهوم «کودک سرباز»، ماده4 «پروتکل اختیاری شرکت کودکان در مخاصمات مسلحانه»، منضم به کنوانسیون مزبور از طرفین درگیری‌های مسلحانه می‌خواهد که به افراد زیر هجده سال اجازه شرکت در مخاصمات مسلحانه داده نشود. در مقابل، سربازگیری اجباری در مورد کودکان نیز ممنوع اعلام شده است. بر اساس ماده 26 و بند 2 ماده 8 اساسنامه رُم «سربازگیری یا نام‌نویسی از افراد زیر پانزده سال برای شرکت در درگیری‌های نظامی ممنوع و در زمره جرایم جنگی است.» اهمیت موضوع به کارگیری کودکان سرباز در مخاصمات مسلحانه تا بدانجاست که دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی، نخستین رأی خود را در 14 مارس 2012 بدین موضوع اختصاص داده است. دیوان در رأی مذکور، آقای توماس لوبانگا (فرمانده شبه نظامیان کنگو) را به اتهام سربازگیری کودکان زیر پانزده سال در بازه زمانی سپتامبر 2002 تا ژوئن 2003 محکوم و طبق بند  2 ماده 74 تعیین مجازات را به جلسه دادرسی مجزا موکول نمود. شایان ذکر است که دادگاه ویژه سیرالئون نیز تنها به فاصله یک ماه از رأی دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی، در تاریخ 16 آوریل 2012 رأیی را در خصوص این موضوع صادر نموده است. به علاوه اساسنامه دادگاه ویژه سیرالئون نیز موضوع کودکان سرباز را مورد جرم‌انگاری قرار داده بود. از این‌رو، در این نوشتاربرآنیم تا ضمن بررسی وضعیت حقوقی حمایت از کودکان سرباز در حقوق بشردوستانه بین‌المللی، به تشریح رویه دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی در خصوص مسأله کودکان و مسؤلیت کیفری پرداخته و نقش رویه‌ساز دیوان را در مقابله با بحران «کودک سرباز» مورد مداقه قرار دهیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Legal Scrutiny through the First International Criminal Court regarding the Enlisting and Conscripting the Child Soldiers in National or International Armed conflict

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zakiyeh Taghizadeh
  • Fatemeh Hdavandi
چکیده [English]

Enlisting and conscripting the " child soldiers" in International or Non- International Armed Conflicts is a tragedy which has surviving all through the 21th century despite of all great enormous development of human being in this sense. Children are the Victims of Such a sad tragedy; they are being taught by governmental personnel of militias as well to fight over the supposed enemy. However, enlisting and conscripting children under  the age of fifteen years by political groups is a prohibited act according to Article 38 of Convention on the Rights of the child (1989). In addition, having considered further numbers of  protected subject, article 4 of the Optional Protocol to the CRC on the Involvement of children In Armed Conflict establishes eighteen as the minimum age for compulsory recruitment and participation In hostilities. Furthermore, these measures were condemned within the meaning of articles 8 (2)(b)(xxvi) and 25 (iii)(a) of the Statue of the ICC. The importance of criminalizing the enlisting for the ICC was so great that the court delivered its first judgment regarding the situation In the Democratic Republic of Congo In the case of the "Prosecutor  v.Thomas Lubanga Dyilo" on 14th March 2012 mainly in the charges of enlisting and conscripting children under the age of fifteen years into the FPLC and using them to participate actively in hostilities from a certain period, early September 2002 to June 2003:  |He was convicted to lifetime imprisonment on  these grounds. Within a very short period ,just right after delivering this judgment, International Court of Sierra Leone has issued a similar judgment on 16 th April in this regard. This article presents an overview of the established legal framework for protecting the child soldiers in international law of armed conflict. It also discusses the experience and practices of the International Criminal Court concerning the issue of children and crimimnal responsibility. This paper further elaborates on the precise role and upcoming place of the ICC in establishing a new judicial precedent dealing with the phenomenon of enlisting child soldiers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Child Soldiers
  • Right of child
  • Enlisting and Conscripting
  • International Criminal Court
  • International or Non – international Armed conflicts
 
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قطعنامه 1261 مورخ 25 اوت 1999
قطعنامه 1314 مورخ 11 اوت 2000
قطعنامه 1379 مورخ 20 نوامبر 2001
قطعنامه 1460 مورخ 30 ژانویه 2003
قطعنامه 1539 مورخ 22 آوریل 2004
قطعنامه1612 مورخ 26 ژوئیه 2005
قطعنامه 1882 مورخ 4 اوت 2009
بیانیه‌های رؤسای وقت شورای امنیت در 24 ژوئیه 2006، 28 نوامبر 2006، 12 فوریه 2008، 17 ژوئیه 2008 و 29 آوریل 2009 میلادی
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