نقش عرف‌های تجاری در تجارت بین‌الملل؛ تأثیر متقابل کنوانسیون بیع بین‌الملل و قواعد اینکوترمز

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، وکیل پایه یک دادگستری

2 دانشجوی دوره دکترای حقوق خصوصی دانشگاه شیراز، پژوهشگر حقوقی، نویسنده مسؤول

3 دکترای حقوق بین الملل، دادیار دادسرای عمومی و انقلاب تهران

چکیده

مقررات کنوانسیون سازمان ملل در خصوص قراردادهای بیع بین‌المللی کالا به عنوان قواعد پیش‌فرض تدوین شده‌اند. ماده 6 کنوانسیون آزادی عدول یا تغییر هریک از مقررات و یا حتی استثنای اجرای آن را به طرفین قرارداد، اعطاء کرده است. بنابراین، اجرای مواد 66-70 کنوانسیون بیع بین‌الملل به صورت‌های مختلفی ممکن است، به طور مثال طرفین می‌توانند اجرای مقرره مشخصی را کنار گذاشته و یا مقرره مورد توافق خود را جایگزین آن سازند؛ بر طبق ماده 6، طرفین می‌توانند شمول مقررات این کنوانسیون را استثناء یا با رعایت ماده 12 از آثار هریک از مقررات آن عدول کنند یا آنها را تغییر دهند، بر این اساس در صورتی که طرفین در خصوص شرطی توافق کنند، تعریف کامل آن در قرارداد ذکر شده و بر اساس ماده 6 کنوانسیون قابل اجراء می‌باشد. با این وجود، در خصوص اینکه آیا درج چنین شرطی منجر به مستثنا شدن کلی قواعد مربوط به ریسک کنوانسیون می‌شود و یا صرفاً یک عدول نسبی از چنین قواعدی رخ داده، اتفاق نظر وجود ندارد. یکی از انواع این قواعد که می‌توانند مورد استفاده طرفین قرار گیرند عرف‌های تجاری و از جمله آن قواعد اینکوترمز می‌باشد. مسئله بعدی این است که آیا اجرای عرف‌های تجاری در صورت عدم ارجاع صریح به آنها در قرارداد ممکن می‌باشد یا خیر. در این تحقیق تأثیر درج عرف‌های تجاری در قراردادهای بیع بین‌الملل بر اجرای قواعد کنوانسیون بررسی شده و در نهایت مشخص می‌شود رویه عملی کشورهای مختلف بر امکان استناد به این عرف‌ها حتی در صورت عدم استناد صریح قرارداد به آن مستقر گردیده است و عرف‌های تجاری و در رأس آنها قواعد اینکوترمز مکمل قواعد انتقال ریسک کنوانسیون بیع بین‌الملل می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Commercial Custom Rules in International Trade, Interaction between CISG & Incoterms Rules

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Bagheri 1
  • Soroush Rostamzad Asli 2
  • Naser Azizi 3
چکیده [English]

United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods provide as default rules. Article 6 of convention gives right to change or dismiss the convention rule to the parties. Consequently, the parties can perform articles 66-70 of convention in several kinds, they can exclude perform some rules, or exclude their effects, in this situation party express their agreement. They can perform their agreement in regard to article 6 of convention, but the question is: where this amendment result is excluding all convention rules about risk, or exclude some rules effects?
When Party agreements amendment convention rule, they can agree that international custom (so incoterms rules) perform. The next problem is: if the party doesn’t expressly agreed about performance of incoterms rules; is it Possible to perform it as part of party’s contracts? In this article we consider the effects of party about substituting convention rule with incoterms rule and at the end clear that courts know incoterms as parts of agreement when party express or don’t express it.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods
  • Commercial custom
  • Incoterms
  • International Trade
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