اجرای تعهدات بین‌المللی در نظام قضایی ایران: محدودیت‌ها و ظرفیت‌ها

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دوره دکترای حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه تهران، عضو مؤسسه حقوق بین‌الملل پارس تهران و دادیار دادسرای عمومی و انقلاب تهران

چکیده

حقوق بین‌الملل نظام حقوقی مستقلی در کنار نظام حقوقی داخلی و متضمن قواعد و مقرراتی است که باید در کنار قوانین و مقررات داخلی مورد اجرای قاضی قرار گیرد. با گسترده شدن حقوق بین‌الملل، موضوعاتی که تحت حکومت مقررات بین‌المللی قرار گرفته‌اند افزایش یافته است و قاضی به عنوان بخشی از نهاد حاکمه متعهد، مکلف به اجرای تعهدات برآمده از منابع حقوق بین‌المللی است که برای وی و توسط ماده 9 ق.م. برابر با قانون معرفی شده است. قاضی باید قانون مناسب (خواه داخلی یا بین‌المللی یا هر دو) حاکم بر قضیه رأیافته و با استدلال و استناد آن را اجرا نماید. قاضی ایرانی با استفاده از مقررات قانون مدنی از این امکان برخوردار می‌گردد تا علاوه بر مقررات عهود، تعهدات ایران مبتنی بر دیگر منابع حقوق بین‌الملل را نیز اجرا کند و ماده 8 ق.م.ا. نیز در هماهنگی با ماده 9 ق.م. حتی بدون نیاز به قوانین خاص مربوط به جرایم بین‌المللی و با تضمین اصل قانونی بودن جرم و مجازات، اسباب حضور کیفری در عرصه بین‌المللی و اعمال صلاحیت جهانی را برای قاضی ایرانی فراهم می‌آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Implementation of International Obligations under the Judiciary System of Iran: Limitations and Potentialities

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamid Hashemi
چکیده [English]

International law is an independent legal system which its norms must be implemented by a judge beside domestic laws. Expansion of the international law led to the explanation of the issues governed by international rules. Article 9 of Iran's Civil Code considers obligations created by sources of international law as equal to that of domestic law, and thus judges are obliged to apply them in their court. Iranian judges, therefore, must identify an appropriate applicable norm (be it domestic or international) and issue their verdict accordingly. In addition to the treaty obligations, the Civil Code of Iran enables a judge to apply obligations created by other international sources. Article 8 of the Civil Code in conformity with Article 9 enables an Iranian judge to play a judicial international role in penal cases without the need to refer to a particular domestic law, provided they observe the legality rule.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Domestic/International Law Relation
  • Implementation of International Law
  • International Obligations
  • Sources of International Law
  • universal jurisdiction
  • Article 9 of the Civil Code
  • Article 8 of the Penal Code
  1. خدابخشی، عبدالله، «تمایز بنیادین حقوق مدنی و حقوق کیفری» پایان‌نامه برای دریافت درجه دکترای حقوق خصوصی، دانشگاه تهران، دفاع شده در تاریخ 14 مهرماه 1387.
  2. Abbott, Kenneth W., Duncan Snidal, “Hard and Soft Law in International Governance Hard and Soft Law in International Governance”, International Organization, Vol. 54, No. 3, Legalization and World Politics, Summer, 2000.
  3. Abi-Saab, Georges, "The Proper Role of Universal Jurisdiction", Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 1, 2003.
  4. Amnesty International, "UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION: The duty of states to enact and implement legislation", IOR 53/002/2001, 2001.
  5. Bradley, Curtis A., “Breard, Our Dualist Constitution, and the Internationalist Conception Breard, Our Dualist Constitution, and the Internationalist Conception”, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 51, No. 3, February, 1999.
  6. Bradley, Curtis A., Jack L. Goldsmith “Customary International Law as Federal Common Law: A Critique of the Modern Position”, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 110, No. 4, February, 1997.
  7. Cleveland, Sarah H., “Our International Constitution”, The Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 31, Winter, 2006.
  8. Cloud, Morgan, “The Fourth Amendment during the Lochner Era: Privacy, Property, and Liberty in Constitutional Theory”, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 48, No. 3, February, 1996.
  9. Cockayne, James, "On the Cosmopolitanization of Criminal Jurisdiction", Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 3, 2005.
  10. Collier, J.G., “Is International Law Really Part of the Law of England?”, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4, October, 1989.
  11. Czaplinski, Wladyslaw, "Sources of International Law in the Nicaragua Case", The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1989.
  12. D’Amato, Anthony, International Law as an Autopoietic System, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International (Draft Paper), November 15, 2003.
  13. D'Amato, Anthony, "Rethinking the Sources of International law. By G. T. H. van Hoof", AJIL, Vol. 78, No. 4, 1984.
  14. Fairweather, Cynthia R.L., “Obstacles to Enforcing International Human Rights Law in Domestic Courts”, U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy, Vol. 4, Spring 1998.
  15. Fenwick, Charles G., "The Sources of International Law", Mihigan Law Review, Vol. 16, No. 6., 1918.
  16. Field, Martha A., “Sources of Law: The Scope of Federal Common Law Sources of Law: The Scope of Federal Common Law”, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 99, No. 5, March, 1986.
  17. Fletcher, George P., "Parochial Versus Universal Criminal Law", Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 3, 2005.
  18. Gegan, Vlaimir-Djuro, "On the Sources of International criminal law", Chinese Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2005.
  19. Grewe, Wilhelm G., The Epochs of International Law, translated by Michael Byers, Walter de Gruyter, Revised edition, June, 2000.
  20. Hall, Thomas D., “Incorporation in the World-System: Toward a Critique Incorporation in the World-System: Toward a Critique”, American Sociological Review, Vol. 51, No. 3, June, 1986.
  21. Hassan, Farooq, "The Doctrine of Incorporation: New Vistas for the Enforcement of International Human Rights?", in Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1, February, 1983.
  22. Hazard, John N., “The Relationship between Domestic and International Law. by V. G. Butkevich”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 78, No. 1, January, 1984.
  23. Henkin, Louis, “INTERNATIONAL LAW: INTERNATIONAL LAW AS LAW IN THE UNITED STATES”, Michigan Law Review, Vol. 82, April 1984 /May 1984.
  24. Hollis, Duncan B., "Why State Consent Still Matters - Non-State Actors, Treaties, and the Changing Sources of International Law", Berkeley Journal of International Law, Vol. 23, 2005.
  25. http://www.un.org/members/list.shtml
  26. International Law Commission, "Commentaries to the Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts", ILC, fifty-third session, 2001.
  27. Jackson, John H., “Status of Treaties in Domestic Legal Systems: A Policy Analysis Status of Treaties in Domestic Legal Systems: A Policy Analysis”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 86, No. 2, April, 1992.
  28. Jennings, Richard W., "International Law: Limitations upon the Application of Foreign Law in Municipal Courts”, California Law Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, November, 1937.
  29. KERWIN, GREGORY J., "THE ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTIONS IN DETERMINING PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN UNITED STATES COURTS", Duke Law Journal, 1983.
  30. Koh, Harold Hongju, “Is International Law Really State Law?", Harvard Law Review, Vol. 111, No. 7, May, 1998.
  31. MacKenzie, N.A.M., “The Nature, Place, and Function of International Law”, The University of Toronto Law Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1939.
  32. Makarczyk, Jerzy, Krzysztof Skubiszewski, Theory of International Law at the Threshold of the 21st Century: Essays in Honour of Krzysztof Skubiszewski, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996.
  33. Margolis, Emanuel, “Soviet Views on the Relationship between National and International Law Soviet Views on the Relationship between National and International Law”, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1, January, 1955.
  34. McGinnis, John O., and Ilya Somin, “GLOBAL CONSTITUTIONALISM: GLOBAL INFLUENCE ON U.S. JURISPRUDENCE: Should International Law Be Part of Our Law?”, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 59, March, 2007.
  35. Nollkaemper, Andre, "INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACTS IN DOMESTIC COURTS", AJIL, Vol. 101, 2007.
  36. O'Keefe, Roger, "Universal Jurisdiction", Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 2, 2004.
  37. Orakhelashvili, Alexander, “The Position of the Individual in International Law”, 31 California Western International Law Journal, Vol. 31, Spring, 2001.
  38. Perkins, John A., “THE CHANGING FOUNDATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW: FROM STATE CONSENT TO STATE RESPONSIBILITY”, Boston University International Law Journal, Vol. 15, Fall, 1997.
  39. Pollock, Frederick, "The Sources of International Law", Columbia Law Review, Vol. 2, No. 8, 1902.
  40. Preuss, Lawrence, "The Relation of International Law to Internal Law in the French Constitutional System", The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 44, No. 4, October, 1950.
  41. Raz, Joseph, The Concept of a Legal System: An Introduction to the Theory of Legal System, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Second edition, 1997.
  42. Ross, Stanley, "The Common Market Tribunal: The Solution to the Conflict between Municipal and International Law in East Africa", The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 2, April, 1972.
  43. Schaack, Beth Van, “INTERNATIONAL LAW IN THE UNITED STATES LEGAL SYSTEM: OBSERVANCE, APPLICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT”, Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 45, 2005.
  44. Schaffer, Rosalie P., “The Inter-Relationship between Public International Law and the Law of South Africa: An Overview”, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 2, April, 1983.
  45. Smith, Munroe, “The nature and the Future of International Law”, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, Feb. 1918.
  46. Symeonides, Symeon C., “Choice of Law in the American Courts in 2004: Eighteenth Annual Survey Choice of Law in the American Courts in 2004: Eighteenth Annual Survey”, The American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 52, No. 4, Autumn, 2004.
  47. Trachtman, Joel P., “INTRODUCTION: THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW REVOLUTION”, University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law, Vol. 17, Spring, 1996.
  48. Trimble, Phillip R., “AN INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW: A POLICY-ORIENTED PERSPECTIVE. By Lung-Chu Chen”, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 42, February, 1990.
  49. Vandermeersch, Damien, "Prosecuting International Crimes in Belgium", Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 3, 2005.
  50. Vervaele, John A.E., “Mercosur and Regional Integration in South America Mercosur and Regional Integration in South America”, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 2, April, 2005.
  51. Wilson, Robert R., "The International Law Standard in Statutes of the United States", The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 45, No. 4, October, 1951.