تعامل سازمان‌های غیردولتی با سازمان جهانی تجارت

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دوره دکترای حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

حضور سازمان‌های غیردولتی در سازمان جهانی تجارت و قلمرو تعامل آنها با یکدیگر از ابعاد مختلف بحث‌برانگیز است. تعیین مبنای منطقی شمول سازمان‌های غیردولتی در فعالیت‌های سازمان و اشکال متفاوت این تعامل، مقایسه موضع سازمان‌های غیردولتی در سازمان جهانی تجارت و سایر سازمان‌های بین‌المللی به‌ویژه سازمان ملل متحد در این خصوص از اهمیت فراوانی برخوردار است. آنچه در این مطالعه راهگشاست، توجه به این نکته اصلی است که بررسی عمیق روابط سازمان‌های بین‌المللی (در این مقاله، تعامل سازمان‌های غیردولتی و سازمان جهانی تجارت است) صرفاً در قالب قراردادی و بدون توجه به واقعیات موجود در رویه این نهادها امکان‌پذیر نیست. همین واقعیت عملی است که مبین رویه‌ حضور چنین سازمان‌هایی در سازمان جهانی تجارت است. آنچه به آن تأکید خواهیم داشت، این است که تعامل بیشتر میان سازمان‌های غیردولتی و سازمان جهانی تجارت، سازمان را به یک نهاد کارآمدتر و مسؤول‌تر تبدیل خواهد کرد که اقبال و توجه بیشتری را به‌همراه دارد. به‌رغم اینکه دامنه گسترش سازمان‌های غیردولتی در سازمان جهانی تجارت حوزه خاص و محدودی دارد، مقایسه تطبیقی عضویت چنین سازمان‌هایی در برخی سازمان‌های بین‌المللی دیگر مانند سازمان ملل متحد، با این نتیجه همراه است که این قلمرو هنوز به طور کامل ترسیم و چارچوب‌بندی نشده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Mutual Interactions of NGOs and WTO

نویسنده [English]

  • Aramesh Shahbazi
چکیده [English]

In this article, we will examine the nature and the extent of the involvement of nongovernmental organizations in the activities of the World Trade Organization. We look at the arguments for and against NGOs involvement in WTO activities and discuss the legal basis for the involvement of NGOs in WTO activities and the various forms of involvement provided for it. We will compare the position of NGOs in the WTO with their position in other international organizations, in particular, the United Nations. Subsequently, this article explores the practice of WTO engagement with NGOs, and finally, it examines and compares the rules and procedures of the WTO and the United Nations for the selection of the NGOs with which to engage. In this regard, Justified concerns about the legitimacy, accountability, and politics of NGOs could be eliminated, or at least mitigated, by introducing a system of accreditation in the WTO. While NGO involvement in the WTO definitely has its limits and its scopes, the involvement of NGOs in other international organizations, in particular, the United Nations suggests that these limits have not been achieved yet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • World Trade Organization
  • Non Governmental Organizations
  • Dispute Settlement Mechanism
  • NGO's Involvements
  • Amicus Curiae
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