سیاست قضایی یا قضاوت سیاسی؟ بررسی تأثیرپذیری دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری از مؤلفه‌های غیرحقوقی

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده روابط بین‌الملل وزارت امور خارجه

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ‌ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده روابط بین‌الملل وزارت امور خارجه

چکیده

پایه‌گذاران منشور ملل متحد، دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری را به عنوان رکنی از ارکان شش‌گانه ملل متحد، ملحوظ توجه خود قرار داده‌اند. وفق ماده 92 منشور ملل متحد، دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری به عنوان «رکن اصلی قضایی ملل متحد» برای حل و فصل مسالمت‌آمیز اختلافات بین‌المللی در نظر گرفته می‌شود. منشور ملل متحد وظیفه اصلی و ابتدایی «حفظ صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی» را به شورای امنیت تفویض کرده است، ولی باید توجه داشت که وظیفه مزبور، وظیفه‌ای ابتدایی و یا اصلی است و نه انحصاری؛ به عبارت بهتر دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری و شورای امنیت برای نیل به اهداف و اصول منشور مکمل و مقوّم یکدیگر هستند، نه رقیب. بدین‌سبب دیوان علاوه بر کارکرد قضایی، کارکرد صلح و امنیتی را نیز برای خود متصور است، این کارکرد در برخی تصمیمات دیوان تظاهری آشکار داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Political Judgment or Judgment Policy? Analyzing the Impact of Non-Legal Factors to Decisions of the International Court of Justice

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yaser Salarian 1
  • Mahdi Khalili Torghabe 2
1 Student in M.A in International Law at School of International Relations, Affiliated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
2 Student in M.A in International Law at School of International Relations, Affiliated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
چکیده [English]

The framers of Charter of the United Nations have considered that International Court of Justice as principal organ of the United Nations; the world Court have applied legal techniques in the resolution of the international disputes. The “principal judicial organ of the United Nations” which has been provided in the Article 92, gives the Court to apply extra-legal techniques for settlement of disputes. In other words, the Court has an additional duty to maintain international peace and security. The Charter gives primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security to the Security Council, but this responsibility is primary and it is not exclusive responsibility to maintain international peace and the Court in the recent years has had the opportunity to complete the function of the Security Council.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Court of Justice
  • International Peace and Security
  • Charter of the United Nations
  • Article 92 of the UN Charter
الف) منابع فارسی

راعی، مسعود. «کنترل کلی یا کنترل مؤثر عاملی برای تحقق مسؤولیت بین‌المللی دولت‌ها؟». فصلنامه حقوق دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران 39(3) (1388): 164-151.

ب) منابع انگلیسی

Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports.

Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Separate Opinion of Judge Cançado Trindad, I.C.J. Reports 2010.

Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Koroma, I.C.J. Reports 2010.

Accordance With International Law Of The Unilateral Declaration Of Independence In Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion Of 22 July 2010, , I.C.J. Report, 2010.

Application for Review of Judgment No. 158 of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1973.

Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia V. Serbia), I.C.J. Report, 2015.

Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo V. Uganda) (Provisional Measures), Summaries of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the International Court of Justice, The Court's Reasoning Burgis, Michelle, 2009, Boundaries of Discourse in the International Court of Justice: Mapping Arguments in Arab Territorial Disputes, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden the Netherlands.

Byrnes, Andrew, and Mika Hayashi and Christopher Michaelsen. International Law in the New Age of Globalization. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Press, Brill NV, 2013.

C. Irwin, Joe. “An Alternative Role for International Court of Justice: Applied to Cameron v. Nigeria.” International Law and Policy 759 (1997-1998): 558-576.

Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, (Democratic Republic of the Congo V. Uganda), 19 December 2005, I.C.J. Report 2005.

Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal V. Australia), Judgement of 30 June 1995, ICJ Reports, 1995.

Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua, (Nicaragua V. United States of America), Judgement of 26 November 1984, ICJ Reports, 1986.

Certain Expenses of the United Nations (Article 17, Paragraph 2, of the Charter), Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1962.

Competence of the General Assembly for the Admission of a State to the United Nations, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1950.

Conditions of Admission of a State to Membership in the United Nations (Article 4 of the Charter), Advisory Opinion, 1948, I.C.J. Reports 1947-1948.

Crawford, Beverly, and Ronnie D. Lipschutz. “DISCOURSES OF WAR: SECURITY AND THE CASE OF YUGOSLAVIA.” Yciss Occasional Paper Number 27, and Prepared for Presentation at the Conference Strategies in Conflict: Critical Approaches to Security Studies, Convened by the Centre for International and Strategic Studies, York University, Toronto, 12-14 May 1994 with the Support of the Cooperative Security Competitions Program, 1994.

East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), Separate Opinion of Judge Vereshchetin, ICJ Report, 1995.

Falk, Richard. The Costs of War: International Law, the UN, and World Order after Iraq. London: Routledge Press, 2008.

Forsberg, Tuomas. “Integration Theories, Theory Development and European Security and Defence Policy.” Paper Presented at the Fifth Pan-European Conference on EU Politics, Porto, June 23-26, 2010.

Higgins, Rosalyn. The, I.C.J., the E.CJ., and the Integrity of International Law.Oxford: Lord Slynn European Law Foundation, 2002.

Hilpold, Peter. Kosovo and International Law: The ICJ Advisory Opinion of 22 July 2010. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012.

Interpretation of the Agreement of 25 March 1951 between the WHO and Egypt, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1980.

Kolb, Robert, and Alan Perry. The International Court of Justice. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2014.

Kolb, Robert. The Elgar Companion to the International Court of Justice. Camberley: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014.

Lauterpacht, Hersch. The Function of Law and International Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South-West Africa) Notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970), Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Report, 21 June 1971.

Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion of 9 July 2004, I.C.J. Reports, 2004.

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, I.C.J. Report, 1996.

Lowe, Vaughan (Editor) and Malgosia Fitzmaurice (Editor). Fifty Years of the International Court of Justice: Essays in Honour of Sir Robert Jennings. First Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Mc Goldrick, Dominic. From “9-11” to the “Iraq War 2003”: International Law in an Age of Complexity. Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing, 2004.

Milanović, Marko, and Michael Wood. The Law and Politics of the Kosovo Advisory Opinion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Peck, Connie, and Roy S. K. Lee. Increasing the Effectiveness of the International Court of Justice: Proceeding of the ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium to Celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Court. Netherlands: Springer, 1997.

Pellet, Allen. Strengthening the Role of the International Court of Justice as the Principal Judicial Organ of the United Nations, the Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 3: 159–180, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Sameh M. Amr, Mohammed. The Role of the International Court of Justice as the Principal Judicial Organ of the United Nations. Leiden: BRILL Press, 2003.

Saul, Matthew. “The Normative Status of Self-Determination in International Law: A Formula for Uncertainty in the Scope and Content of the Right?.” Human Rights Law Review 11: 4 (2011): 609-644.

Scheinin, Martin. “The ICJ and the Individual.” International Community Law Review 9 (2007): 123-137.

Sterio, Milano. The Right to Self-Determination under International Law: “Selfistans,” Secession, and the Rule of the Great Powers. Oxford: Routledge Press, 2012.

Study Prepared by Aureliu Cristescu. The Right to Self-Determination: Historical and Current Development on the Basis of United Nations Instruments, Special Rapporteur of The Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, 1981.

UN General Assembly, Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1970, A/RES/2625 (XXV).

UN General Assembly, Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 14 December 1960, A/RES/1514 (XV).

United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran, Judgement, I.C.J. Reports, 1980.

Van Den Herik, Larissa, and Carsten Stahn. The Diversification and Fragmentation of International Criminal Law (Leiden Studies on the Frontiers of International Law). Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Brill NV, 2012.

Vogel, Bernhard, and Rudolf Dozler and Matthias Herdegen. After the Iraq War: The Future of the UN and International Law. New Delhi: Social Science Press, 2005.

Western Sahara. Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports, 16 October 1975.