قرادادهای هوشمند: توافقات حقوقی در پرتو بلاک چین

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 معاون ارشد و مشاور عمومی بانک مرکزی فدرال ایالت آتلانتای کشور ایالات متحده

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق خصوصی دانشگاه علوم قضایی و خدمات اداری

3 دکترای حقوق خصوصی، استادیار گروه کسب و کار دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

قراردادهای هوشمند نوعی جدید از قراردادهای الکترونیکی می‌باشند که در بستر عمومی بلاک‌چین منعقد شده و از ارزهای رمزنگاری‌شده دیجیتالی (بیت‌کوین) بهره‌مند می‌باشند. انعقاد این قراردادها باید مطابق با مقتضیات انعقاد قراردادهای سنتی و فقدان موانع انعقاد آن قراردادها باشد. این قراردادها به‌صورت کتبی منعقد شده و با استفاده از فناوری رمزنگاری، امضاء و در بستر بلاک‌چین عرضه می‌گردند. از مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های قراردادهای هوشمند، خوداجرایی در اجرای مفاد قرارداد بدون دخالت عامل انسانی، شفافیت در عرضه مفاد قرارداد در بلاک‌چین برای مشاهده عموم، عدم‌ِامکان تغییر همراه با سوءنیت مفاد قرارداد ثبت‌شده در بلاک‌چین و پیشگیری از وقوع جرایم مالی مانند پولشویی می‌باشد. این قراردادها در مسیر لازم‌الاجرا شدن با چالش‌های بخصوصی همچون مسائل مربوط به اثبات، قابلیت اجرایی شروط سلب‌کننده دفاع، صلاحیت قضایی و مسائل مربوط به انتخاب قانون حاکم مواجه می‌باشند، ضمن اینکه علی‌رغم وجود ویژگی خوداجرایی همواره نیاز به عامل انسانی برای حل اختلافات ناشی از این قراردادها وجود دارد. به دلیل بدیع بودن فناوری این قراردادها، هنوز قوانین بخصوصی درمورد آنها در نظامات حقوقی به تصویب نرسیده و کشورهای پذیرنده آن، از قواعد و اصول حقوقی سنتی در توجیه مشروعیت آنها با حقوق موضوعه استفاده می‌نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Smart Contracts: Legal Agreements for the Block Chain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reggie O'Shields 1
  • Mahdi Naser 2
  • hossein sadeghi 3
1 Senior Vice President and Public Adviser to the Federal Reserve Bank of the State of Atlanta, USA
2 M.A in Private Law In University of Judicial Sciences and Administrative Services
3 Ph.D. in Private Law, Assistant Professor, Business Department, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Smart contracts are a new kind of electronic contract concluded in the public ledger Block Chain and benefiting from digital cryptocurrencies (bitcoin). The conclusion of these contracts should be in accordance with the requirements of the conclusion of the traditional contracts and the absence of barriers to the conclusion of those contracts. These contracts are ratificated in writing form and are signed using the encryption technology, then they are presented in Block Chain Ledger. One of the most important features of smart contracts is the self-execution of the implementation of the contract without human intervention, transparency in the supplying of contract clauses in the Block Chain for public viewing, the impossibility of a change with the abuses of the terms of the contract in the Block Chain and the prevention of financial crimes such as Money Laundering. They may present special challenges in such enforcement, including evidentiary issues, enforceability of waivers of defenses, and jurisdictional and choice-of-law questions, in addition to the fact that, despite the existence of self-execution, human intervention must be needed to resolve the disputes arising from these contracts. Due to the new technology of these contracts, there are still no specific laws regarding them in the legal systems, and their adopted countries apply traditional rules and principles to justify their legitimacy with customary laws.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Smart Contracts
  • bitcoin
  • Block Chain
  • technology
  • Legal Rules

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ج) اصطلاحات
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[1]. منابع ذکرشده در انتهای مقاله مشتمل بر منابع استفاده‌شدة نویسنده اصلی مقاله در مقاله اصلی و منابع استفاده‌شدة مترجمین در شرح و توضیح برخی اصطلاحات یا مطالب این مقاله می‌باشد.