ثبات قراردادی با تأکید بر نمونه قراردادهای اکتشاف و استخراج نفت

نوع مقاله : علمی - ترویجی

نویسنده

دکترای حقوق بین الملل و مدرس دانشگاه

چکیده

روابط قراردادی میان سرمایه‌گذاران خصوصی و دولت، یا ارگان‌های وابسته به آن، از دیرباز منشأ طرح مباحث عمده‌ای بوده‌اند. وضعیت خاص دولت، همزمان به عنوان قوه حاکم و حافظ منافع عمومی، از یک‌سو، و مطرح بودن به عنوان طرف قرارداد، از سوی دیگر، همواره موجبات اشتغال خاطر سرمایه‌گذار خصوصی را فراهم نموده است. اجرای قراردادهای سرمایه‌گذاری عمدتاً مدت زمان قابل توجهی را به خود اختصاص می‌دهند. بدیهی است، در طول حیات قراردادهای سرمایه‌گذاری، دولت در اجرای وظایف و اختیارات حاکمیتی خود، ناگریز از وضع مقررات و یا به طور کلی ایجاد تغییراتی در محیط اجرای قرارداد می‌باشد؛ این اقدامات معمولاً بر اقتصاد قراردادهای مورد بحث تأثیرگذار خواهند بود. با توجه به این امر، در قراردادهای مورد نظر عموماً شاهد درج مقرره‌ای می‌باشیم که طرف خصوصی قرارداد از طریق آن سعی می‌نماید اختیارات دولت، به عنوان قوه حاکم، را کاملاً از اثر انداخته و یا محدود نماید. مقرره مزبور که در ادبیات حقوقی از آن تحت عنوان «شرط ثبات» یاد می‌شود، به شرحی که تحولات رویه قراردادی، آرای داوری بین‌المللی و نیز مباحث مطروحه در چارچوب دکترین بر آن گواهی می‌نمایند، موضوع مناقشات متعددی بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Stabilization Clause in the Sample Contracts of Detection and Derivation of Petroleum

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Sahraeian
چکیده [English]

The contractual relations of the private investor and the host State create many questions. The special status of State as the protector of the public interests while it is actually a party of the contact has been always the main important source of concern for the private investor. Concerning the existed problems, these private contracts contain 'stabilization clauses', which limit sovereign actions by freezing the regulatory environment at the moment of signature. Sovereigns never truly 'trade away' their sovereignty by such clauses either in contracts or treaties, since breach is always possible; a State merely increases the potential cost of making a given decision. However, the long-term effect of such regulatory freezing may be negative for the domestic environment of a State, as it may make the best decision as measured by domestic welfare prohibitively costly by requiring satisfaction for foreign investors. In this essay by focusing on some sample contacts and awards of the international tribunals, we will analysis this matter in details.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • stabilization clause
  • Private Investor
  • Natural resources
  • Principle of Sovereignty
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