شناسایی و پیشگیری از فرصت‌های وقوع جرم سازمان‌یافته در بازار بین‌المللی عتیقه‌جات

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جرم‌شناسی دانشگاه ویکتوریای ولینگتون، پژوهشگر در مرکز پژوهش‌های جرم و عدالت دانشگاه گلاسگو اسکاتلند

2 اداره کل حقوقی بین المللی وزارت امور خارجه

چکیده

چکیده:
شورای مشورتی علمی و حرفه‌ای بین‌المللی سازمان ملل متحد در برنامه‌ای تحت عنوان «برنامه پیشگیری از جرایم و عدالت کیفری» در دسامبر 2008 در کشور ایتالیا مبادرت به برگزاری یک کنفرانس بین‌المللی تحت عنوان «جرایم سازمان‌یافته در حوزه آثار هنری و عتیقه» نمود. ماحصل این کنفرانس انتشار یازده مقاله به‌صورت یک کتاب تحت همین نام توسط شورای مذکور و با ویراستاری استفانو ماناکوردابود.
مقاله پیش‌ِرو یکی از مجموعه مقالات ارائه و منتشرشده در این کنفرانس می‌باشد که علاوه‌بر موضوع و ارکان جرم سازمان‌یافته در حوزه آثار هنری و عتیقه، به بررسی انتقادی قانون کیفری مصوب 2003 در کشور انگلستان به‌نام «قانون تجارت اشیاء فرهنگی» که به‌منظور پیشگیری و مجازات جرایم مذکور تصویب گردید، می‌پردازد. استفاده از تجربه‌های قانونگذاری و عملی کشور انگلستان که سال‌ها موردِبررسی میدانی نگارنده مقاله بوده و رویکردهای متعددی که در مقاله حاضر معرفی شده‌اند، می‌توانند جهت مقابله با وقوع این دسته از جرایم در کشورمان که سرشار از آثار باستانی و تاریخی ارزشمند است، راهگشا باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying and Preventing Opportunities for Organized Crime in the International Antiquities Market

نویسندگان [English]

  • Simon Mackenzie 1
  • Bahare Ghanoon 2
1 Professor of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington, Member of the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research at the University of Glasgow, Scotland
2 Legal Department, Ministry of Foreign Affaires
چکیده [English]

On December 2008, International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council of the United Nations (ISPAC), under a programme called “Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme” held an international conference in Italy, titled “Organized Crime in Art and Antiquities”. 11 articles which were represented at the conference were later published by the council in a book with the same title, edited by Stefano Manacorda.
This article is one of those represented in the conference, which engages in explaining the subject and the forming elements of organized crimes in art and antiquities. It also has a critical review on the Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003 of UK which was passed in order to prevent and punish such crimes. Referring to legislative and practical experiences of UK, which have long been studied by the author, and various approaches toward fighting the so-called crime which are mentioned in this article can be extremely useful to be appended in our country which is rich in antiquities and historical monuments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Criminal protection of cultural products
  • International Organized Crime
  • criminal market
  • theft of cultural products
  • antiquities crimes

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