ارتباط حق بر غذا و سیاست‌های تجارت جهانی کشاورزی: تعامل یا تقابل؟

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه شیراز

2 کارشناس ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل، مشاور حقوقی مؤسسه توسعه پایدار و محیط زیست (سنستا)

چکیده

حق بر غذا از اساسی‌ترین حقوق بشری به شمار می‌رود که تحقق آن زمینه‌ساز دستیابی به بسیاری از حقوق بشری دیگر می‌باشد؛ بنابراین، حق بر غذا از اهمیت بسیار خاصی در چارچوب حقوق بین‌الملل بشر برخوردار است. از جمله مهم‌ترین عوامل تأثیرگذار در تهیه مواد غذایی، کشاورزی‌ و چگونگی تجارت جهانی محصولات کشاورزی است. امروزه بخش اعظم این تجارت تحت لوای قواعد سازمان جهانی تجارت انجام می‌گیرد. حال پرسش این است که این قواعد تا چه حد با اصول بنیادین حق بر غذا انطباق دارد؟ آیا تجارت جهانی محصولات کشاورزی به دسترسی حق بر غذای مردمان یاری می‌رساند یا از عوامل نقض آن می‌باشد؟ این مقاله اسناد حقوقی بین‌المللی را مورد بررسی قرار داده و با تحلیل مقررات و رویه عملی سازمان جهانی تجارت به این نتیجه می‌رسد که تجارت محصولات کشاورزی در چارچوب قواعد فعلی این سازمان، ناقض تعهدات دولت‌های عضو نسبت به حق بر غذا می‌باشد. بر این اساس، این مقاله پیشنهاد می‌نماید که برای حصول اطمینان از احترام، حمایت و بر‌آوردن حق بر غذا بازبینی بنیادین اصول و مقررات سازمان جهانی تجارت در مورد محصولات کشاورزی‌ یک ضرورت اساسی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relation between the Right to Food and Agricultural World Trade Policy: Cooperation or Confrontation?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Dr. Farhad Talaie 1
  • Ali Razmkhah 2
1 Associate Professor of International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 M.A. International Law, Legal Advisor, Centre for Sustainable Development (CENESTA), Iran
چکیده [English]

The Right to Food is one of the most fundamental rights among human rights which its realization has the basic role in achieving of the other human rights. Therefore, the Right to Food is very especial in the context of the international human Rights. Agriculture and the global trade in agricultural products are one of the most important factors affecting food production. Today, much of this trade is done in the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. In this context the main question is: to what extent these rules are compatible with the right to food and whether the World trade on agricultural products and the rules governing such trade may have positive or negative effects on the realization of the right to food. This Paper examines the relevant international law documents and analyses the rules and procedure of WTO, and then concludes that trade of the agricultural products in the existing framework of the WTO member states obligation to realize the right to food. Accordingly, this paper suggests that to ensure respect, protection and fulfillment the right to food, a fundamental revision of WTO rules on agricultural products is essential.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The Right to Food
  • WTO
  • Agreements on Agriculture
  • Dumping
  • Domestic Supports
  • subsidies

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