مذاکرۀ مجدد؛ انعکاس نیاز به استمرار تعادل مالی- اقتصادی در قراردادهای سرمایه گذاری صنعت نفت و گاز

نوع مقاله: علمی - ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای حقوق نفت و گاز در مرکز حقوق و سیاست‌گذاریِ انرژی، نفت و گاز و منابع معدنی، دانشگاه داندی، اسکاتلند،

2 استادیار گروه حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با فرض پذیرش این گزارة کلّی که قوانین و مقرراتی که برای قراردادهای کوتاه‌مدت تنظیم می‌شوند، لزوماً قادر به تأمین نیازهای قراردادهای بلندمدت نیستند، در حقوق داخلی و حقوق بین­المللی درخصوص قراردادهای بلند­مدت سرمایه­گذاری خارجی و به‌خصوص قراردادهای بالادستی نفتی و گازی، نگرش مشترکی وجود دارد مبنی‌بر اینکه این‌گونه قراردادها اغلب تحت تأثیر تغییر شرایط و اوضاع‌واحوال قرار می­گیرند.طبق این نگرش، گرچه افراد بایستی خسارات ناشی از حوادث غیرقابل‌پیش‌بینی در قراردادهای کوتاه­مدت را خود برعهده بگیرند اما این مسئله درمورد روابط بلند­مدت همیشه صادق نیست. در قراردادهای بلندمدت، تغییر شرایط و اوضاع‌واحوال می‌تواند تعادل قراردادی را برهم زده و مانع تداوم توافق اولیة طرفین ـ مبتنی‌بر تعادل اقتصادی قرارداد ـ شود. در چنین شرایطی اگر منافع طرفین در تداوم قرارداد باشد، راه‌حل، مذاکرة مجدد است؛ آنچه بازتابی از تنش میان نیاز تجاری به حصول نتیجه در قراردادهای بلند­مدت تجاری بین‌المللی و عدم‌ِامکان پیش­بینی و تنظیم تمام شرایط محتمل در آینده در متن قرارداد است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Renegotiation; Reflection of the Need to Maintain the Economic and Financial Equilibrium of Upstream Petroleum Contracts

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Namdar Zangeneh 1
  • Seyyed Hossein Tabatabaei 2
1 Dr. Mohammad Namdar Zangeneh Ph.D. Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, University of Dundee, United Kingdom
2 Assistant Professor, International Law Department, Law Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Assuming that the rules formulated for short-term contracts will not be suitable for the needs of relationships that should continue over a period of time, it has been accepted both in domestic law and international law that an international investment contract, particularly upstream petroleum contracts, may be influenced by change in circumstances. People are supposed to bear the losses arising from unexpected situations in short-term, but that is not always the case in long-term relationships. Significant changes could occur in the economic and social conditions surrounding foreign investment contracts. Petroleum contracts, in particular, are negotiated under complex and uncertain circumstances. Therefore, the parties’ foreseeability to predict all the contingencies is limited and every possible eventuality in contract cannot be specified in advance. Under these circumstances, one option is for the parties to accept reasonable requests for renegotiation by their partner when the contractual or financial equilibrium has been severely disrupted by external events.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Renegotiation
  • Upstream Petroleum Contracts
  • Change of Circumstances
  • Contractual Stability
  • Sovereignty of States
  • Protection of Foreign Investment

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